Ap biology immune system essay

Ap biology immune system essay

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The Expert’s Guide to the AP Biology Exam

If you’re taking AP Biology, it’s a good idea to familiarize yourself with the exam before you get too far into the course. Preparing ahead of time for the AP exam format and fully understanding which concepts are covered on the AP Biology test can go a long way toward earning a high score (and potentially getting college credit!).

This article will take you through the structure and scoring of the AP Bio exam and give you some key tips on the best ways to study for AP Biology.

How Is the AP Biology Exam Structured?

The AP Biology test has a multiple-choice section (that also includes grid-in questions, so it’s not purely multiple choice) and a free-response section. It is three hours long In total.

The next AP Biology exam will take place on Monday, May 13, 2019, at 8 am.

Multiple-Choice Section

The first section on AP Bio consists of multiple-choice questions and a handful of grid-in questions. Here’s an overview of what to expect:

  • 63 multiple-choice questions
  • Six grid-in questions
  • 90 minutes long
  • Worth 50% of your score

Grid-in questions ask you to integrate math and science skills to make calculations and then enter your answer into a grid on the answer sheet (essentially, these are short-response questions that are similar to grid-in questions on the SAT Math section).

Free-Response Section

The second section is the free-response section, which looks like this:

  • Six short-response questions
  • Two long-response questions
  • 90 minutes long (including a 10-minute reading period)
  • Worth 50% of your score (25% for the short responses and 25% for the long responses)

One of the long-response questions will be Lab — or data-based, while all short-response questions require you to Write at least a paragraph for your response or argument.

Expectations of the AP Biology Exam

Here’s what both sections on the AP Biology test expect you to know how to do:

  • Understand how graphical and mathematical models can be used to explain biological principles and concepts
  • Make predictions and justify events based on biological principles
  • Implement your knowledge of proper experimental design
  • Interpret data

Is this coffee smiling at me? Or am I delirious from lack of sleep?

What’s Tested on the AP Biology Exam? 4 Big Ideas

The AP Biology test doesn’t include a set number of questions that deal with each topic area, but you should note that The exam is centered around four major themes (or «Big Ideas,» as the College Board calls them). Here’s a list of these themes, followed by the topics that fall beneath each of them:

Big Idea 1: The Process of Evolution Drives the Diversity and Unity of Life

Topics that fall into this category include the following:

  • Natural selection
  • Mathematical modeling of populations
  • Species classification
  • Biodiversity

Big Idea 2: Biological Systems Utilize Free Energy and Molecular Building Blocks to Grow, to Reproduce, and to Maintain Dynamic Homeostasis

Topics that fall into this category include the following:

  • Molecular biology
  • Cell structure
  • Photosynthesis
  • Cellular respiration
  • Thermodynamics and homeostasis
  • The immune response

Big Idea 3: Living Systems Store, Retrieve, Transmit, and Respond to Info That’s Essential to Life Processes

Here are the main topics in this category:

  • Genetics
  • The cell cycle (mitosis and meiosis)
  • Viruses
  • Communication between cells
  • The endocrine system
  • The nervous system

Big Idea 4: Biological Systems Interact, and These Systems and Their Interactions Have Complex Properties

The topics that fall into this category include the following:

  • Plant structure
  • Enzymes
  • The circulatory system
  • Digestion
  • The musculoskeletal system
  • Ecology

AP Biology Sample Questions

Now that you have a basic content outline, Here are some examples of the types of questions you’ll see on the AP Biology test so that you can get an even better idea of what to expect.


Here is an example of a multiple-choice AP Biology exam question:

This question looks kind of complicated, but let’s break it down. The first sentence is background information that isn’t really necessary for answering the question, besides the fact that it tells us we’re talking about sickle cell anemia. This is helpful if you can remember basic facts about the disease that you can use to contextualize the question.

The main part of the question asks what will be affected when you replace a hydrophilic amino acid with a hydrophobic one on a hemoglobin protein. Based on your knowledge of sickle cell anemia and molecular properties, you should be able to Eliminate choices B and C, which don’t have much to do with the abnormality described in the question.

Choice D can also be eliminated because the internal secondary structure of the protein is not altered by the existence of the hydrophobic group.

This would only affect how the molecule interacts externally with other hemoglobin molecules, as in Choice A (the correct answer).

Here’s an example of a grid-in question that you might see on the AP Biology test:

This question just Asks you to read a graph and perform some basic calculations. We can see from the graph that from day 3 to day 5, the population size grew from 200 to 900 individuals. This means that it increased by 700 individuals in total.

If we divide 700 by the time period of two days, that’s a mean growth rate of 350 individuals per day. Therefore, y Ou would enter “350” into the grid For this question.

Bacteria gettin’ it on.

Short Free Response

Here’s an example of a short free-response question you might see on the AP Biology test:

On this particular question, you could earn a maximum of 4 points (one for each type of data you describe in part a and one for the explanation for each in part b). Here are three t Ypes of data and their corresponding explanations you could cite for points:

Option 1

Data Description: The ability of the plants to produce viable seeds/offspring in nature

Explanation: This is consistent with the definition of a biological species

Option 2

Data Description: Comparison of the two plants’ DNA sequences or structures of other conserved molecules.

Explanation: Sufficient similarity between the DNA structures would support the existence of a single species

Option 3

Data Description: Discovering the existence of fertile hybrid plant populations living between the two other populations of plants

Explanation: This is also consistent with the definition of a biological species (again, ability to produce fertile offspring)

There must be jobs out there for which you just have to collect plant samples. Start building your experience now by never showering.

Long Free Response

Here’s an example of a long free-response question you might see on the AP Biology exam:

On this question, You could earn up to 10 points in total.

Part A is worth 3 points. To earn these points, you have to:

  • Create a graph that is correctly labeled, is correctly scaled, and uses proper units.
  • Make it a bar graph with correctly plotted sample means.
  • Show the standard error (+/- 2) on your graph above and below the means.

Part B is worth 2 points. To earn these points, you have to:

  • Identify populations I and III as the most likely to have statistically significant differences in the mean densities.
  • Explain why this is the case (because the margins of error do not overlap for the mean densities of these two populations; 9+2 is less than 14-2).

Part C is worth 5 points:

  • You’d earn 2 points for identifying the independent variable (presence of herbivores) and dependent variable (trichome density).
  • You would earn 1 point for identifying a control treatment (absence of herbivores).
  • You would earn 1 point for identifying an appropriate duration of the experiment (more than one generation of plants).
  • The final point would be earned by predicting experimental results that would support the hypothesis (higher trichome density under the experimental conditions as compared to the control conditions).

Ugh, gross! This leaf is full of trichomes.

How Is the AP Biology Exam Scored?

As mentioned, on AP Bio The multiple-choice section (including the grid-ins) makes up 50% of your score, and the free-response section makes up the other 50%.

For the multiple-choice section, it’s easy to calculate your raw score: y ou just get 1 point for each question you answer correctly. There are no point deductions for incorrect or blank answers. This is also true for the grid-in questions.

Scoring is a bit more complicated on the free-response section (which is scored by actual graders rather than a computer). Each of the Six short response questions has a different point value depending on its complexity. Three are scored out of 3 points, while the other three are scored out of 4 points. Finally, Each long free-response question uses a 10-point scale.

To figure out your final AP Bio score, you’ll need to do a couple more calculations. This can change from year to year based on the performance of students, but this is the most recent estimate I have regarding the methodology behind it:

  1. Multiply the number of points you got on the multiple-choice section by 1.03
  2. Multiply the number of points you got on the two long free-response questions by 1.5
  3. Multiply the number of points you got on the short free-response questions by 1.43
  4. Add all these numbers together to get your raw AP Biology score

Here’s a conversion chart you can use to see how raw score ranges (generally) translate into final AP scores (on a scale of 1-5). I’ve also included the percentage of students who earned each score in 2017 to give you an idea of what the score distribution looks like:

Ap bio essay immune system

These memory cells proliferate or differentiate faster when they attack the same antigen again. The second time the same antigen is exposed, the response is faster.

Use this graph to answer part a and part b of this question. These includes the inflammatory response this involves increase in body temperature, increase capillary permeability, attraction of macrophages, and more!

Antibodies are produced by which type of immune cell? Describe the following mechanism of response to foreign materials to the human body. These cells contain histamine that calls in the cavalry and initiates the inflammation response.

Then it is rejected by the immune system. Finally, the third line of defense is the acquired immunity active immunity. You must have general ideas such as how the lines of defense which we will delve into later work together and what kind of white blood cells are in what defense.

The graph below shows the response of the human immune system to exposure to an antigen.

This is a pretty easy topic to understand. The antigen recognizes the new skin as foreign. Other nonspecific immunity examples are the skin acts as a barrier for invaders and the pH of the stomach which is so acidic that it virtually destroys most pathogens.

Instead, it involves the general defenses of the body like mucus membranes, skin, hair follicles, etc. Macrophages can be compared to soldiers without an off switch.

The antibodies make the antigens susceptible to phagocytosis by WBCs. Describe the events that occur during period I as the immune system responds to the initial exposure to the antigen.

The antibodies produced in the secondary immune response have a greater affinity for the antigen. This is nonspecific immunity; for example, when an invader enters through the nose, it will be trapped by the nasal hairs and mucus and the human body will then try to expel the invader by the common act of «sneezing».

It is not searching for a certain invader to «kick out» but rather any invader. D The first line of defense, as stated, involves general defenses such as mucus membranes and skin. What does this mean? Eventually there is a cell disruption which leads to the death or impaired function of the cell.

All the important information you need to know! The increase in blood supply causes the redness and heat typical inflammation to occur.

The Immune System Welcome to the wonderful, wonderful world of the Immune system not that wonderful but pay attention, the evil AP people love torturing us with these questions. Secondary response is much more effective than primary response! A.P. Bio immune system A. P.

Biology Immune System study guide by meeka_steez includes 54 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more.

Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Questions 1 and 2 are long free-response questions that require about 22 minutes each to answer and are worth 10 points each.

Questions 3–8 are short free-response questions that require about 6. Mammalian milk contains antibodies that are produced by the mother’s immune system and passed to offspring during feeding. Mammalian milk also contains a sugar (lactose) and may contain proteins (protein A, protein B.

AIDS is another acquired immune deficiency. Healthy immune system function appears to depend on both the endocrine system and the nervous system. For example, hormones secreted by the adrenal glands during stress affect the number of white blood cells and may suppress the immune system in other ways.

Ap bio cell respiration3 ppt. Ap bio. AP ® BIOLOGY SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) explain how the immune system attacks the transplant.

Sample: 2C Score: 5 The student earned 3 points in part (a): 1 point for stating that the skin covers the body and blocks the entry of pathogens; 1 point for stating that mucus captures pathogens; and 1 point for stating that.