Han China/Imperial Rome CCOT
Han China was one of the longest dynasties in Chinese history, however, the Imperial Roman empire lasted even longer. Han China and Imperial Rome share many similarities as well as many differences. Although Han China and Imperial Rome had many similarities (patriarchy, expansion), the differences (recruitment, system of who is in authority) in methods of political control outweigh the similarities because of they had little interaction with each other.
The first similarity between Han China and Imperial Rome is found when comparing their patriarchal societies.
Both in Han China and Imperial Rome they were extremely patriarchal. In each society the man of the house could arrange marriages for their children, decided whether or not to keep the offspring born to their wives, and decided how to punish wives if they commit a wrongdoing. In Han China, for example they tried to strengthen patriarchal authority by emphasizing importance of filial piety and women’s subordination to men. Imperial Rome was also patriarchal, for example, because husbands would have multiple children with their wives in hope of birthing a strong, healthy son to carry on the family name and legacy.
The main job given to women in Rome was to birth sons. The women had no say in the number of children they had or in keeping the children they gave birth to. If the women couldn’t fulfill this expectation of having sons, the husband would divorce the woman, have children with another woman, or simply kill his wife and find another one. The next similarity between Han China and Imperial Rome is the expansion of both their governments. Both societies sought to expand the borders of their empires through imperial expansion.
They perceived threats to security led to wars and conquests, which increased the length of borders and led to more perceived threats. In vein of the Qin dynasty before the second empire, the primary goal of the Han dynasty was to unite all of China. To accomplish this, Han China invaded and brought the territories of Korea, Vietnam, and parts of modern Kyrgyzstan into Chinese society. Likewise, Imperial Rome conquered all of the Mediterranean basin and oversaw affairs from Anatolia and Palestine in the east to Spain and Morocco in the west.
Both societies also had vast armies to control their new territories. Han China and Imperial Rome differed, firstly, in their forms of recruitment. In Han China, they needed educated officials to take positions in the society. To accomplish this, they created a university and civil service exams. The university they established was based on Confucianism for its curriculum and was used to prepare men for government service. The men also had to take civil service exams, which people rarely passed, to become a government official.
The recruitment for Imperial Rome was simpler. A typical recruit for the Roman army would appear at an interview with a letter of introduction, often written by the family patron. Next, they had to have a medical examination. The examination consisted of checking for a minimum height which was demanded and making sure the soldiers had all their fingers, toes, and limbs. After this was over, the men were given advanced pay and would be posted to a unit. Han China and Imperial Rome are different, secondly, because of who is in control of their government.
Han China’s political system was known for a centralized unit, that was ruled by an emperor through the Mandate of Heaven. Rome, however, had a centralized, interwoven structure that was ruled by a Roman monarch, who controlled their complex structure. Furthermore, Han China was divided into administrative districts that were governed by officials, selected by the emperor. Though in contrast, Imperial Rome created a monarchy, disguised as a republic, so that the emperor could have complete control, but the citizens would feel like they were contributing to the government.
Han China and Imperial Rome were two very influential societies in history. They shared many similarities as well as many differences with each other. Han China and Imperial Rome had several differences, like recruitment and their systems of who is in authority, but they also had many similarities, such as being patriarchal and expansion, however their differences outweigh their similarities because they had little interaction with each other so they didn’t share ideas or concepts.
CCOT China from 600-1450 Essay Sample
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CCOT China from 600-1450 Essay Sample
The separation of Genghis Khan’s children and the creation of many new territories created political and economic change and continuity. From 600 C. E. to 1450 C. E., China was taken over by the Mongols and submitted to their rule; however, the Mongols kept the bureaucratic political system in play throughout their rule in China. Economically, Chinese involvement and production with trade increased majorly, but the Silk Road trade route was used continuously throughout the time period. As the changes and continuities appeared, they citizens of China could direct them back to only one group, the mighty Mongols.
After Genghis Khan’s rule ended, his sons broke into separate areas, one being the China. The then Song Empire submitted to Kublai Khan, and Mongol rule and the Da Yuan Empire created. As the Mongol Presence grew greater in China, the government positions changed. The Mongols came in and over took the government system by taking the high positions through control. The Mongol presence also changed the division of the Empire. Before the Mongols, the Chinese territories were separated into provinces. After the Mongols took power they separated into only North and South China.
After this division, social divisions were also made. The Mongols in China also influenced political aspects of Religion. Mongol rule did not directly change religion but the presence of them influenced neo-Confucianism, along with both Daoism, and Buddhism. These changes over the Mongol Rule were directly traced back to the expansion of the Mongol people and the introduction of the Khanates to China and related territories. With the Mongol influence, changes over the Chinese became present during the rule of the Mongols which influenced political changes throughout the Mongol Rule.
Although the Mongols had a strong influence in changes throughout the rule, they also played an important role in the continuity of political systems and ideas. When the Mongols gained control they over took the government however they only took control of the positions in the Chinese system. The Mongols did not make changes to the Dynastic Cycle that had been going on for centuries in China, but instead preserved it, creating a new Dynasty, Da Yuan. The Mongols gained the control by using the previous idea of Mandate of Heaven. This idea was preserved throughout the many Dynasties previously in China.
Through this idea, the Mongols were able to easily capture China but also kept the idea to show their loyalty to the Chinese. Bureaucracy in China during Mongol also remained the same. The govt. officials did not make executive decisions by himself rather than with the help of the Khanates. The Mongols kept these important political ideas to not disrupt the Chinese culture while still using the power and might of the territories. These continuities in China can be traced back to the Mongols and their ideas of governmental and Dynastical uninterruption. The same ideas of political continuity appear in Eastern Europe and the Middle East around the same time because of the failure of govt. change had in the attempt to take over Russia.
Throughout this time frame in China, the Mongols implemented massive trade of the commodities that the Chinese could easily produce and sell for a high price. Because of the Mongol changing the amount of communications through the Silk Road trade route, the status of merchants changed, making the production of simple lifestyle items in Chinese culture increase. One way this was done is through the foreign merchants brought in by Kublai Khan. These people were skilled in trading and knowing how to get the correct price, or more, for items. These merchants brought their techniques to the untrained Chinese merchants.
With these factors of increased trade came the mass production of Chinese goods. Things like silk and other Chinese crops were in high demand in the Middle East and Eastern Europe. This allowed the Chinese to get materials that they needed without losing much. However, as the farming became more necessary, the taxes became lower but the price of the crops rose. The Mongols were very keen on getting rich, and these changes benefited the Mongols because it brought economic growth and money to the Mongol Empire.
Mongol rule brought massive change to Chinese trade but before the Mongol rule in China, trade was still present though not as massive. Throughout the Dynasties of China, Silk Road trade was necessary. The need for trade was always present in China due to the demand of product the west of China; however it only gained major importance after the Mongol rule. Through the Silk Road trade Route came the spread of religious ideas. This trade spread Confucianism, Islam, and Buddhism along the Silk Road’s major places. This continued throughout the Mongol Rule in China but began before they even arrived there which effected China economically because of how well traders and other people communicated.
The continuation of problem spreading also relates back to the Silk Road. Before the Mongols came what little involvement China had with trading still brought problems. After the Mongol arrival and the trade increase, drastic problems arose along the Silk Road and in China itself. The trade eventually led to the economic downfall of China because of the price rise of many items and crops. As all of these reasons are based on trade, and so was the reason the Mongols kept them. The Mongol presence helped trade in China increase; Just like the Mongol presence in Islamic territories in the Middle East helped trading through regions all over Eurasia.
In the Chinese lands from 600-1450, the presence of the Mongols and their dominance in China was shown; however they were culturally captivated and kept governmental systems. The Mongol dominance in China was also shown through the increased involvement in trade after the Mongols took rule, but the idea of Silk Road trade was kept from previous time periods before the Mongols came to power in China. The Mongol presence in China greatly affected the Chinese people in both good and bad ways. Because of the Mongols, history in China was changed forever.
Ap World History Ccot China
Politic of Ancient Nations of China from 1120BCE to 220CE — Ap World History Ccot China introduction. Through thousands of years of Chinese history, numerous numbers of countries repeated to rise and fall, especially during 1200BCE and 220CE due to two periods of warring nations. In this period, there were long lasting nations such as Han, which controlled the eastern China for 400 years, to nations that collapsed all of a sudden, like Qin. Even though there were countless numbers of nations existed in this period, there were some unchanging factors: strong centralized government and existence of shi.
However, they also had various change in politics over time, which is the variation of fundamental idea. First of all, every major nation during period 1200BCE and 220CE, Zhou, Qin, Han, established centralized government. This is crucial for Chinese history in that it is hard to find nations that established centralized government before these nations. Throughout the world, there were some centralized nations such as the Roman Empire of Mediterranean region in this era. However, these nations differed in how they had established centralized government.
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Zhou was able to establish initial centralized government mainly by mandate of heaven, which is the concept of king having both power and responsibility for ruling the nation. Qin established strong centralized government based on powerful military and strict legalism. Han established the most concrete centralization among these countries because instead of vassals or aristocrats, government officials of Han were sent to rule the provinces. Moreover, unlike Qin, Han adopted Confucianism instead of strict legalism.
These nations endeavored to establish centralized government because it had advantages to the decentralized government in that the politic was stabled and there was less possibility of rebellion. Although these nations differed in how they established centralized government, kings and emperors of these nations had strong power compared to former nations. Another feature which Zhou, Qin and Han shares is that bureaucrats existed in their government and assisted the kings or emperors.
Bureaucrats refer to government official experts who handled various roles in the government. Zhou, Qin and Han all adapted bureaucracy in order to handle administrations efficiently and to establish centralized government. Even though there are some differences in that bureaucrats of Qin were legalists and those of Han were Confucianists, bureaucrats possessed big part in politics of ancient Chinese nations. Despite of these similarities, some great difference in politics existed between these countries.
The most important and distinct difference is that the fundamental idea varied. To be specific, as stated above, politic of Qin was based on strong legalism. Therefore, social rules and laws in Qin were much stricter than those of Zhou and Han. When Qin Shi Huangdi was in charge of the Empire, this existed as the strong power source, but when Shi Huangdi died, it became one of main reasons why the empire collapsed so rapidly. Unlike Qin, the fundamental idea of Han’s society and politic was Confucianism.
Confucianism did not suppress the peasants with strict laws and harsh labors. Indeed, it set welfare of the common people as the paramount of all decisions. This idea, the government taking care the welfare of common people, was very developed in that it first emerged at Europe in late 19th century. Although there were many differences in politics between Zhou, Qin and Han as the time passes by, the variation of fundamental idea was the most distinct difference. The figure of society develops as time passes by.
Of course there are some exceptions such as the Dark Age of medieval Europe, this standard can be applied to most part of history, including the ancient nations of China: Zhou, Qin and Han. From Zhou to Han, their fundamental idea of politics developed from the Mandate of Heaven to Confucianism, which is having great influence in East Asian society even these days. Of course, there were some features that these nations shared, centralized government and existence of bureaucrats.