Development theory essay

Development: Short Essay on Development

This essay provides information about the trends of development:

Development is always deliberated with economic connotations and it is referred to as an increase in the gross national product or in per capita income. In this understanding, development is equated with growth and it is envisioned that a quantum increase in the production of goods and services would bring development.

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It was also assumed that the trickledown effect of growth would lead to an equitable sharing of benefits resources and opportunities in society. This process of development, however, has not been able to yield the desired result to humanity, especially in the developing countries. Development pattern of the past few decades have shown the following trends:

The high Gross National Product (GNP) growth of the fast growing developing countries has failed to reduce the socio-economic deprivation of substantial sections of their population. High income for the industrialised countries has not been able to provide protection against the rapid spread of social concerns like drug addiction and alcoholism, AIDs, homelessness, violence and the breakdown of family relations.

Significantly, some low-income countries have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a high level of human development if they skillfully use the available means to expand basic human capabilities. Against this backdrop, there has been a perceptive shift in conceptualising development. The realisation is that economic growth is essential for humanity but it should be seen only as a means to improve human choices.

The essential truth that people must be at the centre of all development can be stabilised in this process. The purpose of development is to offer people more options. One of their options is access to income – not as an end in itself but as a means of acquiring human well being. But there are other options as well, including long life, knowledge, political freedom, personal security, community participation and guaranteed human rights.

People cannot be reduced to a single dimension as an economic creature. What makes them and the. Study of development process fascinating is the entire spectrum through which human capacities are expanded and utilised. It is no realised that people are the real wealth of a nation that the basic objective of development is to create enabling environment for the people to enjoy Ion healthy and creative lives and that the statistical aggregates to measure national income and its growth have at times obscured the fact that the primary objective of development is to benefit people.

Development Theory Essay

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This coursework tends to analyze the case why Sally, a certain researcher, seems to lose her working will which caused her to be dull on her job. This paper discusses the applicable development theory which could explain the reason behind her said behavior towards her job. The development perspective or theory which could be applied to Sally’s case is the Contextual theory. Contextual theory explains the development wherein the recent or various context of a certain person’s life influences her behavior.

There are two major views in this development, the first one is the ecological theory and the second one is the life course theory (“Contextual Theories,” 2007). Sally’s case can be applied in the Life course theory which explains that the present life context of a certain person is a result of his or her historical time and place, timing of lives, link lives, and human agency and social constraints (“Contextual Theories,” 2007).

These major themes under the life course theory major view explains why Sally experiences her loss of mood towards her job. Historical time and place theme could explain the theory that maybe since Sally already worked for fifteen years in the small corporation and contributed lots of achievements, she might be feeling that she already did all she has to do with her job and that she does not have to further give major contributions to the company.

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Timing of lives theme could explain Sally’s behavior towards her work because maybe there had been lots of distressing events that happened to her, link lives theme could provide the theory that maybe Sally loss her mood towards working because she is having a relationship problem within her family or even friends. Lastly, human agency and social constraints could explain that maybe; Sally’s behavior is caused by some of her decisions in life such as deciding to resign on the future since she had been working for the company for a long time already. View

Certain events that happen on a person’s life do indeed influence or affect a person’s present and even future behavior towards her life aspects such as work, relationship, and even decision-making. Therefore, the present behavior of a person is shaped by her life’s events from the past and even from the present as much as the social environment and/or place influences or impact’s a certain person’s behavior. Cultural Event and Analysis A certain and considered major cultural events that shaped the lives of families and children is the event when the world trade center had been bombed (“TERRORISM – WORLD TRADE CENTER ” 2001).

It causes families and children to experience trauma, loss of job, and even fear which as the time passed, were still a part of their everyday lives. Like for example, those children whose parents died because of that event are presently not studying or working but instead they became an addict of a certain substance such as alcohol because of the depression they were not able to contain. This case could be studied so as to why and how its result turned out that way by simply knowing the past events and influences on the children’s social environment.

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Human Development Theories

Human development theories are models intended to account for how and why people become, as they are (Thomas 1997). Theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behaviour (Schroeder, 1992). It is important to recognize the complexity of human development and the theories that explain human development.

Through out history there have been theories about human development. The writer will look at the different Theorie’s related to Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, and Cognitive Theory’s. Psychoanalytic meaning behaviour development of the psyche, Humanistic meaning to become fully functional, cognitive meaning, thinking. The writer will look at the following theorists Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Abraham Maslow of their theories through out time.

Freud was a theorist who wanted to look at humans and how they developed. He believed strongly that there were five sexual stages in life as follows the Oral, Anal, Phallic, latency and Genital. from when you were born though till you died. Freud also believed that many emotions were caused by unconcious sexual desires, some of which originated in infancy

Eriksons theory was that development resulted from the interaction between inner instincts and outer cultural and social demands: hence the name psychosocial stages. . The stages are as follows, basic trust verses mistrust, autonomy verses shame, and doubt, initiative verses inferiority, identity verses role confusion, intimacy verses isolation, generatively verses self absorption and stagnation, ego integrity verses despair. So from learning these he believed you could gain hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care and wisdom.

Jean Piaget was a swiss scientist whose theories shaped the thinking of several generations of developmental psychologists. Piaget was only interested in » how does thinking develop»(Bee pg.35). A pivotal concept in Piaget’s model and the hardest to grasp is that of schema Piaget believed there were four stages in the thinking process, these were the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage.

Abraham Maslow looked at the humanistic side of development he believed there was a third force. Maslow focused on human experience, problems, potentials and ideals. . He believed that self-image, self-evaluation and frame reference as to how humans perceive themselves and experience the world.

Freud’s theories were that children have sexual pleasures and fantasies long before they reach adolescence. one of his theories is the idea that behaviour is governed not only by conscious but by unconscious processes, according to freud, is an instinctual sexual drive he called the libido present at birth and forming the motive force behind virtually all our behaviour. According to this theory of infantile sexuality, developed in the first five or six years occurs in three psychosexual stages. Freud also believed that a parent’s influence is crucial in helping the child through the stages of psychosexual development. Freud also argued that personality has a structure that develops over time there are three parts, the id the ego and the superego. in freuds theory, these three parts are not present at birth..

Apart from Freud the greatest influence on the study on development of Psychoanalytical behaviour has been Erik Erikson, (Erikson Erikson,1950,1959,1980b,1982,Erikson, Erikson & Kivnick,1986: Evans,1969). Erik Erikson (1902- ), Erikson shared most of Freud’s basic assumptions but differed from him on several key points, by his own comprehensive theory of development he believed that there were three major aspects to development, that they are centered, not only on body parts but on each person’s relationship to the social enviroment. these according to Erikson were, Somatic: Physical strengths and weaknesses, personal: Life history and current development stages, Social: Cultural, historical and social forces.

Piaget did not follow Freud or Erikson theories he believed in the natural processes, the theories Piaget believed are that life begins with a small repertoire of simple sensory or motor schemas such as looking, tasting touching, hearing and reaching The sensorimotor stage went from birth to two years of age where the child’s intellectual development was largely non-verbal, but is trying to co-ordinate movements with information from the senses. The preoperational stage from two years to seven years is that the child is intuitive but unable to see other people’s views, the child’s ego is the center of its world. The concrete operational stage is from seven years to eleven years this is when the child masters the concept of conversation, time, space and number,(Coon pg. 100). The formal operations stage eleven years and up Thinking is based on more abstract principals, and hypothetical possibilities. The older the adolescent they are more capable of inductive and deductive reasoning. From these theories Piaget concluded that you need cognitive thinking to develop not Freuds motive force.

Maslow’s theories were developed to disprove that Freud and Eriksons theories were wrong by humans using motive force and somatic theories. Maslow

believing them to be negative , looked at another perspective theory to Freud , Erikson and Piaget. He was interested in the development of motives and needs, which he divided into two subsets, deficiency motives and being motives. Deficiency motives involve drives to maintain physical or emotional homeostasis, such as the drive to get enough to eat and drink, the sexual drive to obtain sufficient love or respect from others, (Bee pg. 34).

Maslow also believing humans to be independent and fundamentally motivated. To achieve maximum potential to grow and develop. capabilities. (Maslow 1970 pg. 401). Maslow (1968, 1970a,1970b, 1971), used the term self-actualization to describe this ultimate goal in life, (Bee pg. 33). Maslow extended his study to a population of college students. Selecting students who would fit his definition of self-actualizers, these students showed no signs of maladjustment and were making effective use of their talents.

The differences between psychoanalytical, cognitive thinking and humanistic behaviour are describing humans as individuals of a collection of hidden impulses that need to be expressed. Cognitive theorists see the human as a thinker, organizing and adapting experiences so they make sense. The Humanist theorist focus on what the person may become rather than where they are at the present time. From the theories discussed in this paper, it is clear that how complex human development is. No one theory successfully describes human growth and development in all of it complexity.

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