Essay on current events 2015

Essay on current events 2015

Current Affairs 2018

The value of Current Affairs in Civil Service Examinations is enormous. This is the most critical part of both Prelims and Mains Exam. Aspirants should study in depth to understand the significance of current affairs for the Union Public Service Commission. In fact, all the questions in Civil Service Exams are framed around current affairs. Questions are not asked directly for current news and information in the exam. Questions are framed by combining current affairs with practical knowledge. The primary motive behind this type of strategy is to check the ability of correlation a candidate can make to the fact.

Why current affairs is more important in Civil Service Exam?

Success in Prelims and Mains Exam is directly related to an aspirant’s awareness in current affairs. Preparation of current affairs for UPSC is the key to unlock the exam. It requires practice and revision in a well-connected manner.

In such a scenario the preparation of current affairs topics related to India and the world is an important part of your preparations. The students have to be aware of the happening in India and around the world as this portion is an integral part of the general studies paper.

In order to make you ready for the challenges of the Current Affairs preparation, we are covering the current affairs topics on a regular basis.

Our current topics are categorised in such a way that it includes; political affairs, current news, science news, general knowledge, government’s scheme and policies and international affairs.

We provide you comprehensive topics of preparation that covers not only India’s current scenario but also international events. We also cover Indian news headlines and other important international events under the current affairs segment.

For the very purpose of getting you ready for the challenge that is current news and views in India, we are covering the current affairs 2018 on a regular basis. Our hot topics are categorised such that they include political affairs, current news, science news, general knowledge, current government affairs and international affairs. Only studying India’s current scenario or political affairs is not sufficient as you have to cover international events and affairs along with the Indian news space, as well as important and current events in the field of science and sports.

Current affairs books and magazine

Current Affairs October 14 to October 20

International Current News

  • United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC): It is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world. India was elected to the United Nations’ top human rights body for a period of three years beginning January 1, 2019. India got around 188 votes in the Asia-Pacific category, the highest number of votes among all candidates. The 193-member UN General Assembly held elections for new members to the UN Human Rights Council. The 18 new members were elected by absolute majority through a secret ballot. Countries needed a minimum of 97 votes to get elected to the Council.
  • Azerbaijan: It is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. India-Azerbaijan have signed protocol and have exchanged views on current economic situation and reviewed the current status of bilateral trade, investment and their cooperation in the fields of trade, economy, science and technology. They emphasised to further strengthen and expand their cooperation in trade and investment, transportation, energy and hydro-carbons, SMEs, agriculture, food safety and environmental protection, tourism, culture, health and pharmaceuticals, space technology, education and scientific research, chemicals and petrochemicals and mining. Trade turnover between India and Azerbaijan in January-August 2018 was USD 657.9 million. Both sides felt that bilateral trade was far below the potential and there was a need to step up the cooperation to enlarge the trade basket and increase bilateral trade and investment. Both sides agreed to take measures to enhance trade relations and expand business relations between the two countries.

National Current News

  • Sikkim: It is a state in northeast India, bordered by Bhutan, Tibet and Nepal. Sikkim has won the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Future Policy Gold Award for its achievement in becoming the world’s first totally organic agriculture state. Sikkim is the first organic state in the world. All of its farmland is certified organic. At the same time, Sikkim’s approach reaches beyond organic production and has proven truly transformational for the state and its citizens. Uniquely, the state has totally banned the sale and use of chemical pesticides. Sikkim sets an excellent example of how other Indian states and countries worldwide can successfully upscale agroecology. Nicknamed the «Oscar for best policies», the award is co-organised with the FAO by The World Future Council (WFC) and IFOAM — Organics International, and recognises the world’s best laws and policies promoting agroecology. Sikkim beat out 51 other nominees from around the world for the award.
  • National Health Profile 2018: It is an analytical Report of the National Health prepared by the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI), under the aegis of the Directorate General of Health Services. It covers demographic, socio-economic, health status and health finance indicators, along with comprehensive information on health infrastructure and human resources in health. CBHI has been publishing National Health Profile every year since 2005. This is the 12th edition. E-book of NHP-2015 is a step towards realizing Prime Minister, Narendra Modi’s vision of Digital India where digital documents give us an opportunity for wider dissemination of information.
  • Urban Leadership fellowship programme: It is a new fellowship programme launched by Delhi government to seeks to attract young leaders across the country to work with it on addressing some of the most pressing urban challenges. Any person under 35 years of age and has a dream to contribute for India can participate in the programme. The deadline for receiving applications will end on November 4. Selected fellows will be assigned to work with ministers or senior officials across various departments of the Delhi government such as education, health, water, transport, art and culture. Remuneration of Rs 1.25 lakh per month will be provided to Fellows (20 positions) an Rs 75,000 per month to Associate Fellows (10 positions).
  • Youth Road Safety Learners Licence programme: It is a new initiative launched in collaboration with Diageo India and the Institute of Road Traffic Education (IRTE). It attempts to bring a formal and structured training program for young, first-time drivers as they apply for learner’s license. Road safety is of prime importance for the Government as recent times have seen an alarming rise in road fatalities especially among the youth. Rash driving, drunken driving, lack of adequate safety measures like not wearing helmets are some of the major factors resulting in high road accidents. He said, the government is committed to making its vision of safer roads and cities a reality. This programme will help the Government achieve its target of reducing road accidents by 50 percent by 2020. Every individual road user is a brand ambassador for road safety. She informed that India accounts for 12.5 per cent (over 1.45 lakh fatalities a year) of global road accidents, with one road accident occurring every four minutes. Alarmingly, 72 per cent victims involved in such road mishaps are between the age groups of 15-44 years with speeding, reckless and drunk driving being the top reason accounting for 1.5 per cent of road traffic accidents and 4.6 per cent of fatalities. She welcomed the main-streaming of road safety in formal education system.
  • Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation: It is a subsidiary of the Indian Railways that handles the catering, tourism and online ticketing operations of the Indian railways. It has launched a chatbot to help its users answer various queries. The AI chatbot— Ask Disha — is powered by artificial intelligence (AI) and it is aimed at facilitating accessibility by answering users’ queries pertaining to various services offered by IRCTC. This first-of-its-kind initiative by IRCTC is live and it is already available on the bottom right corner of IRCTC’s revamped website and it will soon be available on IRCTC’s Android app. Besides this, the AI chatbot will be voice enabled and it will support several regional languages in the near future.
  • Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE): It is an autonomous council under the Environment Ministry, signed two pacts to spread awareness about forests, and environment among the youths of the country. The first pact was signed between ICFRE, Dehradun, and Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS), and the second with Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS). The MoUs have been signed to launch the ‘Prakriti’ programme, which aims to promote awareness about forests and environment, and to stimulate interest among the students of NVS and KVS in maintaining a balanced environment and for acquiring skills that reflect care and protection towards forests, environment and society. It added that another objective of the programme is to provide a platform to school children to learn practical skills for judicious use of resources and to mobilise a cadre of youths for raising a peoples’ movement committed to conserve forests and the environment.
  • Saubhagya Scheme: It is an Indian government project to provide electricity to all households. It is also known as Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana. Ministry for Power and New & Renewable Energy has announced an award scheme under Saubhagya to felicitate the DISCOMs / Power Department of the States and their employees for achieving 100 per cent household electrification in their area of operations. According to an official release, awards would be provided for achieving 100 per cent household electrification at DISCOM/Power Department level of the States. Eight States which have already achieved more than 99 per cent household electrification prior to launch of Saubhagya (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Punjab and Tamil Nadu), are ineligible for participation under the award scheme. All the remaining States and their Discoms are eligible for the award. Award will be given in three categories, (i) DISCOMs / Power Departments of Special Category States (which includes seven North Eastern States, Sikkim, J&K and Uttarakhand); (ii) DISCOMs / Power Departments of other than Special Category States (which includes Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Telengana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal)having more than 5 Lakh un-electrified households and (iii) DISCOMs / Power Departments of other than Special Category States having less than 5 Lakh un-electrified households.
  • Swasth Bharat Yatra: It is a new initiative launched by the Food Safety Food Safety and Standards Authority of India(FSSAI) to sensitize people about healthy eating habits among consumers. In association with the state, the union government took the initiative. A pan-India cycle rally is being organized to propagate safe and nutritious food among the consumers. The campaign is aiming to raise awareness among the consumers. Around 7500 cyclists are expected to participate the rally which will cover over 18,000 km in over 100 days. The cycle rally will pass through almost every state and UT while propagating a powerful message ‘Eat Right India.’ The rally will conclude in the national capital on January 27, 2019. The campaign will aim not only to mobilize masses but also to create a large pool of local community to sustain this movement.

Sports Current News

  • Asian Para Games : It is a multi-sport event regulated by the Asian Paralympic Committee that held every four years after every Asian Games for athletes with physical disabilities. India ended the 2018 Asian Para Games on a high after bagging a total of 72 medals, their best show in the event’s history. India clinched 15 gold, 24 silver and 33 bronze medals to finish the campaign at the ninth place. In the last edition in 2014, India had won just 33 medals (3 gold, 14 silver, 16 bronze). India’s Pramod Bhagat defeated Ukun Rukaendi of Indonesia 21-19, 15-21, 21-14 to clinch the gold medal in men’s singles SL3 class badminton event. Significantly, athletes falling in the SL3 category generally have impairment in one or both lower limbs and poor walking or running balance.

Science and Technology Current News

  • Artificial Intelligence:It is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think. NITI Aayog has inked agreement with Microsoft India to deploy artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to deal with problems in agriculture and health care and promote adoption of area language computing among the other folks. This partnership will assist NITI Aayog to shift over and above pilots and understand how to scale AI implementation in sectors characterized by preponderance of community products. Below the agreement, Microsoft will present NITI Aayog sophisticated AI-dependent remedies to handle worries in agriculture and health care which includes farm advisory services, health care screening styles at Major Health Centres (PHCs) and build potential for AI by education between some others. It will also assist NITI Aayog by combining cloud, AI, investigate and its vertical skills for new initiatives and options throughout various main parts.
  • Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGB) :These are government securities denominated in grams of gold. They are substitutes for holding physical gold. Investors have to pay the issue price in cash and the bonds will be redeemed in cash on maturity. The Bond is issued by Reserve Bank on behalf of Government of India. The government of India has launches the Series II of Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGB) scheme opened for subscription. Sovereign Gold Bonds will be issued every month from October 2018 to February 2019 as per the calendar specified in five tranches. The first tranche of the scheme which opened today would be open for subscription till October 19 and the bonds would be issued on October 23. The next tranche would be open from November 5-9 and issuance would be on November 13. The next one would be available for subscription from December 24-28 and the bonds would be issued on January 1, 2019. Another tranche would open for subscription from January 14-18 and the issuance of bonds would be on January 22. The final one would be from February 4-8 and those would be issued on February 12.
  • Reserve Bank of India: It is India’s central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee. It commenced its operations on 1 April 1935 in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. Aiming to improve digital transactions, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has released guidelines to facilitate payments among different mobile wallets. As per the road-map laid down in 2017, interoperability of all KYC-compliant Prepaid Payment Instruments (PPIs) was to be enabled in three phases — interoperability of PPIs issued in the form of wallets through Unified Payments Interface (UPI), interoperability between wallets and bank accounts through UPI, and interoperability for PPIs issued in the form of cards through card networks. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issued consolidated guidelines for enabling all phases «in order to prepare better for implementation of interoperability». Interoperability is the technical compatibility that enables a payment system to be used in conjunction with other payment systems. Interoperability allows PPI issuers, system providers and system participants in different systems to undertake, clear and settle payment transactions across systems without participating in multiple systems. MobiKwik, Oxigen, Paytm, ItzCash, and Ola Money are some of the popular mobile wallets in the country. Currently, a mobile wallet does not allow customers to send or receive money from a wallet run by another company.

Environment

  • PRAKRITI:It is an initiative launched to promote awareness about forests and environment. It aims to stimulate interest among the students of NVS and KVS in maintaining a balanced environment and for acquiring skills that reflect care and protection towards forests, environment and society. Another objective is to provide a platform to school children to learn practical skills towards judicious use of our resources and to mobilize a cadre of youth for raising a peoples’ movement committed to conservation of forest and environment. Through this collaboration, knowledge will be imparted to students/teachers of NVS and KVS on environment, forest, environmental services and contemporary areas of forestry research by way of lectures and interactive sessions by scientists of ICFRE institutes. Visits of students/teachers of NVS and KVS schools will also be arranged to the laboratories and field/experiments of ICFRE institutes for hands-on experiences.

Current Affairs October 07 to October 13

National Current News

  • Zika Virus: It is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. It is spread by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Its name comes from the Ziika Forest of Uganda, where the virus was first isolated in 1947. In a written statement, the Union health ministry confirmed 22 Zika cases so far through the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) surveillance system. A joint monitoring group of technical experts headed by the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) has met twice to monitor the preparedness and response measures. To date, a total of 22 positive laboratory confirmed cases have been detected. A Control Room has been activated at the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) to undertake regular monitoring of the situation. All suspect cases are in the defined area and mosquito samples from this area are being tested. Additional testing kits are provided to the Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratories.
  • Rapid Action Force: It is a specialised wing of the Indian CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) to deal with riot and crowd control situations. Government of India has sanctioned five battalions this year and their new bases have now been sanctioned. With these, the total number of RAF battalions in the country goes up to 15. The process for acquiring land for the five new bases is underway and the five battalions, which are already operational, will start functioning from their permanent locations in sometime. Apart from the temple town of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, the four other new battalions will be based in Jaipur (Rajasthan), Mangalore (Karnataka), Hajipur (Bihar) and Nuh (Haryana). Varanasi will be the fourth base of the RAF in Uttar Pradesh — the three others being in Meerut, Allahabad and Aligarh. A single RAF battalion has a strength of just over 1,000 personnel and it is equipped with gadgets and non-lethal weapons like pump action guns, tear smoke grenade launchers and others to enforce security and law and order in case of protests or riot-like situations. The 10 old RAF battalions are based in Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Allahabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Aligarh, Coimbatore, Jamshedpur, Bhopal and Meerut.
  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY): It is the government sponsored crop insurance scheme that integrates multiple stakeholders on a single platform. The Union Government has decided to cover damages done to crops in case of wild animal attacks under the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojna in select districts on an experimental basis. According to the information shared by a government official, the government also brought certain horticultural crops under the ambit of Fasal Bima Yojna ambit on an experimental basis. Initially, Fasal Bima Yojna did not previously cover damages incurred to an individual or a limited number of cultivators during unprecedented localised events such as waterlogging, landslide and hailstorms. However, now under its new provisions, the protection scheme will cover all these events.
  • Alphonso Mango: Alphonso mango is a seasonal fruit, considered to be among the most superior varieties of the fruit in terms of sweetness, richness and flavour. The variety is named after Afonso de Albuquerque, a Portuguese general and military expert who helped establish Portuguese colonies in India. Alphonso mango from Maharashtra’s Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Palghar, Thane and Raigad districts has got Geographical Indication (GI) tag. A GI is an indication used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. Such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness which is essentially attributable to its origin in that defined geographical locality. Darjeeling Tea, Mahabaleshwar Strawberry, Blue Pottery of Jaipur, Banarasi Sarees and Tirupati Laddus are some of the GIs. GI products can benefit the rural economy in remote areas, by supplementing the incomes of artisans, farmers, weavers and craftsmen.
  • Task Force for Closing the Skills Gap : It is a new initiative launched by Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in collaboration with the World Economic Forum. The task force will bring together leaders from business, Government, civil society, and the education and training sectors to accelerate the future-proofing of education and training systems in the country. The goal of the Task Force is to develop an action plan to address skills gaps in India and make the Indian workforce ready for jobs of future. Minister of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship said that with more than half of our population in the working age, skills development will be critical to sustaining inclusive growth and development in India. The “Closing the Skills Gap” Task Force will be a significant step to accelerate the impact on skills development already achieved by bringing together relevant stakeholders to act collectively. He thanked World Economic Forum and Observer Research Foundation for coming out with reports on these important areas particularly related to the aspirations of Indian youth. The Task Force is the second country-led public-private collaboration of the World Economic Forum’s Closing the Skills Gap Project after South Africa.
  • India for Humanity: It is a new initiative launched by the government of India. It aims to touch the lives of thousands of people who are in need of such assistance and will span over one year covering several countries. These camps will be initially held in 12 countries identified through our missions with financial support of the central government. The larger aim is to provide for the physical, economic and social rehabilitation of the differently-abled around the world by helping them regain their mobility and dignity to become self-respecting and productive members of society. We stand open to extending the initiative to more countries. India for Humanity will provide that hope for the future. With its focus on Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of compassion, caring and service to humanity, the initiative will feature a year-long series of artificial limb fitment camps in a number of countries spanning the globe, for which the MEA is collaborating with the renowned charitable organisation — «Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti» (BMVSS).
  • National Policy on Electronics 2018 : It is a new policy proposed by Ministry of Information Technology which has set an ambitious target of creating a $400 billion electronics manufacturing industry by 2025, with the mobile phone devices segment accounting for three-fourths of the production. The draft National Policy on Electronics (NPE) aims to promote domestic manufacturing in the entire value-chain of ESDM (electronic system design and manufacturing) for spur economic development. The proposed policy aims to double the target of mobile phone production from 500 million units in 2019 to 1 billion by 2025 to meet the objective. The $400 billion turnover shall include targeted production of 1 billion mobile handsets by 2025, valued at $190 billion (approximately Rs 13 lakh crore), including 600 million mobile handsets valued at $110 billion (approximately Rs 7 lakh crore) for export, the draft states. According to the draft, 20 greenfield and three brownfield electronic manufacturing cluster projects have been sanctioned with the project outlay of Rs 3,898 crore, including Rs 1,577 crore from the Government of India. The policy proposes to push development of core competencies in all the sub-sectors of electronics including electronic components and semiconductors, defence electronics, automotive electronics, industrial electronics, strategic electronics etc.
  • World Economic Forum: It is a not-for-profit organization. It gained formal status in January 2015 under the Swiss Host-State Act, confirming the role of the Forum as an International Institution for Public-Private Cooperation. The World Economic Forum launches the centre for the fourth Industrial Revolution in India. Making the announcement, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that the launch of a Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which will be based in Maharashtra. The centre, he said, will «open the door to infinite possibilities for the future. The Fourth Industrial Revolution describes the huge ongoing changes in our lives due to the Internet and the resulting smart technologies. Describing the exponential changes, PM Modi said, «Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Internet of Things, Blockchain, Big Data and several other new technologies have the capacity to take development in India to new heights. Coordination among diverse technologies is leading to 4th Industrial Revolution.»
  • National Council for Vocational Education and Training: It is a new council created after the merger of National Council for Vocational Training(NCVT) and National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) to establish National Council for Vocational Education and Training (NCVET). NCVET will regulate the functioning of entities engaged in vocational education and training, both long-term and short-term and establish minimum standards for the functioning of such entities. The primary functions of NCVET will include — recognition and regulation of awarding bodies, assessment bodies and skill related information providers; approval of qualifications developed by awarding bodies and Sector Skill Councils (SSCs); indirect regulation of vocational training institutes through awarding bodies and assessment agencies; research and information dissemination; grievance redressal.
  • Productivity Linked Bonus for Railway Employees : It is the new bonus scheme announced by government of India. The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the payment of Productivity Linked Bonus (PLB) equivalent to 78 days’ wages for the financial year 2017-18 for all eligible non-gazetted Railway employees (excluding RPF/RPSF personnel). The financial implication of payment of 78 days’ PLB to railway employees has been estimated to be Rs.2044.31 crore. The wage calculation ceiling prescribed for payment of PLB to the eligible non-gazetted railway employees is Rs.7000/- p. m. The maximum amount payable per eligible railway employee is Rs.17,951 for 78 days. About 11.91 lakh non-gazetted Railway employees are likely to benefit from the decision. The Productivity Linked Bonus on Railway covers all non-gazetted railway employees (excluding RPF/RPSF personnel) who are spread over the entire country. Payment of PLB to eligible railway employees is made each year before the Dusshera/ Puja holidays. The decision of the Cabinet shall be implemented before the holidays for this year as well. For the year 2017-18 PLB equivalent to 78 days’ wages will be paid which is expected to motivate the employees for working towards improving the performance of the Railways.

Science and Technology Current News

  • Climate change: It is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather within the context of longer-term average conditions. India has suffered economic losses of $79.5 billion due to natural disasters during the last two decades, according to the United Nations (UN). Between 1998 to 2017, two of the worst years for lower-middle income countries — a category that India falls into — were 2002 when a severe drought in India affected 300 million people, and 2015 again with a drought hitting India and other countries, according to the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction report. It warned of growing risk from climate change, which would hit developing countries the hardest. The last 20 years have seen a dramatic rise of 151 per cent in direct economic losses from climate-related disasters, the report said. During that period 77 per cent of the economic losses $2,908 billion were due to climate-related disasters.
  • ISRO: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore. Its vision is to «harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration. The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will be working together on the first manned space mission. At end of delegation level talks between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Russian President Vladmir Putin, a MoU was inked between ISRO and the Federal Space Agency of Russia ‘ROSCOSMOS’ for joint activities in the field of Human Spaceflight Programme. The Russian side has offered a ride to Indian astronaut a short visit to International Space Station (ISS) on board a Soyuz spacecraft for a short training mission in 2022. India hopes to send its first manned mission Gaganyaan in 2022.
  • Bioelectronic medicine: It is a new development in the scientific world where an implantable, biodegradable wireless device that speeds nerve regeneration and improves the healing of a damaged nerve. Researchers at the Washington University in the US developed a device that delivers regular pulses of electricity to damaged peripheral nerves in rats after a surgical repair process, accelerating the regrowth of nerves in their legs and enhancing the ultimate recovery of muscle strength and control. The size of a dime and the thickness of a sheet of paper, the wireless device operates for about two weeks before naturally absorbing into the body, according to the study published in the journal Nature Medicine. This method offers therapy and treatment over a clinically relevant period of time and directly at the site where it’s needed, thereby reducing side-effects or risks associated with conventional, permanent implants. While the device has not been tested in humans, the findings offer promise as a future therapeutic option for nerve injury patients.
  • Stanford University: It is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, wealth, proximity to Silicon Valley, and ranking as one of the world’s top universities. Stanford University takes first place on Reuters’ list of the World’s Most Innovative Universities for the fourth consecutive year. Backed by producing new patents and papers that influence researchers around the world, the university has locked down the top spot. According to the report, the patents and research works include several developments in the field of rtificial intelligence. Members of the department of Electrical Engineering have come up with an AI camera system that analyzes images faster and with less energy than current systems. The work could lead to a new generation of smart camera applications in autonomous vehicles, surveillance systems and medical devices. At the university’s department of Computer Science, researchers have designed an AI system that can predict potential drug interactions before new pharmaceuticals are ever tested on humans. The system, called Decagon, could help researchers find better drug combinations to treat complex diseases.
  • MedWatch app: It is a new mobile application launched by the Indian Air. The app is conceived by the doctors of IAF and developed in house by Directorate of Information Technology (DIT) with ZERO financial outlay. MedWatch will provide correct, Scientific and authentic health information to airwarriors and all citizens of India. The app is available on www. apps. mgov. gov. in and comprises of host of features like information on basic First Aid, Health topics and Nutritional Facts; reminders for timely Medical Review, Vaccination and utility tools like Health Record Card, BMI calculator, helpline numbers and web links. MedWatch is the first mobile health app in the three Armed Services.

Environment

  • Dolphin research centre: India’s and Asia’s first dolphin research centre will be setup at Patna. National Dolphin Research Centre (NDRC) is likely to be set up next month on the banks of the Ganga river in the Patna University premises. It will play an important role in strengthening conservation efforts and research to save the endangered mammal. The process to set up the NDRC started after the Patna University agreed nearly two months ago to provide the land. The university’s Syndicate had earlier stalled the proposal for over three years. Unhappy over the delay, Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar had threatened earlier this year to shift NDRC to Bhagalpur.
  • The United Nations Environment Programme: It is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices. The Confederation of Indian Industry has signed a MoU with the UN Environment for coherent implementation of the environmental dimension. The MoU encompasses ‘coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development’. It provides a framework of cooperation and facilitates cooperation in issues of environment, climate change, renewable energy, energy efficiency, resource conservation and management, water sanitation, smart cities and urban infrastructure. A major activity planned under the MoU, will be the #Un-plastic Initiative of CII and UN Environment, beginning with a Call to Action including commitments by industry on actions to curb plastic pollution. This builds upon the momentum generated on World Environment Day, 2018, whose theme was, Beat Plastic Pollution.
  • Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority: It is a board which functions for protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing, controlling and abating environmental pollution. The Centre has reconstituted Supreme Court-empowered Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority or the EPCA, which is tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in the National Capital Region. The tenure of the last EPCA expired on October 3. Former secretary Bhure Lal continues to be the chairman, while theCentre for Science and Environment (CSE) DG Sunita Narain is one of the members. The other members of the 20-member re-constituted authorityinclude Ajay Mathur, who is the Director General of The Energy Research Institute (TERI), Arunabha Ghosh, the Chief Executive Officer of the Centre for Energy Environment and Water, Navroz K. Dubash, the Senior Fellow for the Centre for Policy Research. Others include Vishnu Mathur, Director General, Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers; Arvind Kumar, former professor of surgery, AIIMS, in New Delhi and presently Chairman Centre for Chest Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital; Krishna Dhawan, Chief Executive Officer, Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation, New Delhi among others.
  • National Environment Survey: It is the proposed survey to be held in 2019. Around 55 districts across the country have been identified in 2018-19 for conducting an environmental survey covering various parameters like flora, fauna and pollution. The survey is proposed under the ongoing Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Scheme of the ministry. The data, information or maps flowing from the survey would contribute significantly towards valuation of eco-system services at district, state and national levels and arriving at their respective green gross domestic product.

Current Affairs September 30 to October 06

Sample Essay – Balaji D K IAS Rank – 36, CSE-2014

By INSIGHTS · August 9, 2015

Balaji (Read his story Here) got 70 marks in his Essay paper in his first Mains (first attempt). In his second attempt, after writing many essays before the exam, he has got 138 marks. He has doubled his marks through rigorous practice. Essay plays an important role in deciding one’s rank. Please practice essay regularly. You can get up to 160 marks in Essay paper, whereas in single Optional or GS Paper it is difficult to cross even 100 marks (barring GS-4 where one can get good marks). As each mark is crucial, it is better to write 15-20 essays before Mains and get the extra edge. Same applies for each paper, but Essay requires minimum effort compared to other papers. Many do not even write a single essay before Mains. That’s actually a biggest mistake one can commit.

On Sundays we post an essay topic every week. Please write an essay on it either in your notebook or on the website. You can write for any other topic also. But do write at least one essay every week.

We hope following essay by Balaji helps in providing you some pointers.

ESSAY STRATEGY BY ESSAY TOPPER: Chandra Mohan Garg, Rank 25, Essay Marks 149, CSE 2015

By INSIGHTS · June 4, 2016

ESSAY STRATEGY BY ESSAY TOPPER

Chandra Mohan Garg, Rank 25

Essay Marks 149

Essay is the most taken for granted area in civil services preparation. We spend months preparing for GS-1, 2, 3, 4 but hardly any of us give any dedicated time for preparation of essay. It is important to understand that one essay paper is equivalent to almost 1.5 G. S papers in terms or scoring.

In 2014 I went without any preparation and ended up scoring 121 marks. In order to improve my rank I needed to focus on essay as there was a good scope of 30 plus marks. I made a strategy and worked on it, this helped me in scoring 149 in this attempt.

Before I begin, let me do away with few misunderstandings

  1. You need to be a champ in English ( your grammar, spelling mistakes, poor vocabulary cannot stop you from scoring high)
  2. Essay does not need preparation. Your GS knowledge can provide fodder but Essay unlike GS answers need lot more.
  3. You cannot improve so easily in essay. I increased 28 marks in Essay despite the fact that this year essay has been less scoring compared to last year.

Now let me discuss how to approach an essay:

  1. Choice of topic

Choice of topic should be clearly based on your holistic understanding of the subject matter. So choose a topic with which you are most comfortable. At times we think that the topic is so common that most of the people will choose it, so let me choose some unconventional topic. This is a totally wrong thinking, many people end up scoring poor marks due to this. So fight with your best weapons on.

  1. Interpretation of the essay topic

Do not be in a hurry to write an essay. Many people see the broader title and start writing the essay without even understanding the theme of the topic.

Eg — With greater power comes greater responsibility [2014 ].Now the moment people see power they somehow relate it to politics and bureaucracy and start building their essay around it, writing all theories, quotes and examples they know related to it. Here the theme of this topic is philosophical which talks of power present in any institutional system (family, religion, community, politics, administration etc), throughout society power is banked from people to a leader so that he can use that power for a common good. So with greater power comes greater responsibility. In this context we need to critically analyse the theme of the essay.

After selection of the topic we need to brainstorm to get fodder material that we can write in the essay. There are various things and various ways to brainstorm.

Key words:- break the topic and look for key words to tinker upon. Example – With greater Power comes greater Responsibility we know power and responsibility are key words. Now you can brainstorm around key words

Past-Present-Future: – Another way to think upon to get points related to the topic.

SPECLIH:-Think from Social, Political, Economic, Cultural, Legal, International, Humanistic perspective. You can make your own acronym and add more dimensions to think from

Now what to brainstorm: You can look for quotes, examples, events, illustrations, case studies, Government initiatives, and facts and figures etc. So anything that can make the essay more informative and interesting.

  1. Structuring the essay

Information is one thing but how to put that information in a structured and systematic way is very important. So need to focus on few things while structuring your essay

Outline: Create an outline of essay i. e. how will your essay proceed. I feel PAST-PRESENT — FUTURE is a good technique, you can have other ways to decide the flow of the essay as well. E. g.- “Dreams that should not let India sleep”, here I discussed Nehru’s speech of tryst with destiny to explain what those dreams were, Then came on present why that dream is faltering and then talked of future that what are these dreams and how can we fulfil it.

Breakup: Break up your essay properly

Once you have brainstormed the points, created an outline and structured your essay, now you are ready to write the content.

Language & Presentation: Write in simple language. No need of flowery expressions. Keep short sentences and small paragraphs

Explanation of points: Explain through examples or illustrations whatever you are trying to explain. Mention government Initiatives, policies & plans wherever possible. International examples or case study wherever possible.

Focus of essay: Throughout the essay the theme should be reflected and flow should be maintained from beginning to end. Each paragraph should link to the other. Also do not focus only on covering lot of dimensions in the essay. In this race we lose the flow of essay. More than knowledge essay should reflect your vision and ideas.

Introduction: Your Introduction should clearly lay down what the essay will entail, giving a brief idea to the reader. You can always use a story, quote, fact/Information or abstract way to create a context and then build your introduction over it.

Example:- “Is sting operation an Invasion in Privacy”[2014]. Here you could begin your Intro with the Tehelka story of Gujarat riots that hit the news and then raise questions was it good or bad and discuss that in the body.

Body: This part is all about analysis. Here three things are Important. 1.) If the topic is debatable you need to discuss both sides. If not then it will be straight-forward. 2.) In any case you will have certain line of arguments to put your case. 3.) Explain each of them through some examples.

Example: “Is sting operation an Invasion in Privacy”. This is debatable topic. So you will have both sides. Yes it in an invasion, No it is not an invasion. To discuss both sides you will have some arguments. Now when you put your arguments substantiate with the example and illustrations.

Conclusion: In conclusion focus on three things 1.) Summarise the topic 2.) Put your concluding stand 3.) Tell a way ahead. Try to end your essay on some positive/visionary note.

  1. What preparations you can do for the essay

Read: You need to read some good essays and learn how beautifully people put up their arguments. These essay don’t have diversity but depth. So reading some good essays can tell you how to begin an essay, write arguments, and conclude. Most Important is how to create a structure of essay.

Prepare: I don’t think coaching helps here. It has to be you.

  • In your daily newspaper reading if you find some good lines or examples then keep noting them. Especially editorials.
  • Take up some common/general topics like women, education, healthcare, internet, science (look at last 20 years essay) and prepare some fodder on it. Like quotes, imp case studies, examples, factual info, government initiatives etc.
  • Have a repository of good opening and closing lines. You will find this through reading newspapers, good essays of others etc.

Write and evaluate: One should write at least 5-6 essays. When you write try to apply the points I explained above in this article. And most importantly get your essays evaluated by some teachers, selected candidates or sincere friends. This will help in making improvements.

  1. Time division

There is no hard and fast rule, it is totally your discretion but am telling it as this will be asked. So am sharing what I used to do.

  1. Topic Selection : 5 minutes
  2. Brain storming/creating outline/structure of essay : 15 minutes
  3. Essay Writing : 1hr to 1hr 5 minutes
  4. Revising Essay: 5 minutes
  1. Queries?

I have tried to explain to the best of my capabilities. If you still have doubts I have created a page on FB named CSE Preparation, you can post your queries there. Here is the link https://www. facebook. com/chandramohangargpage/

  1. What I wrote in 2015?

I don’t remember exactly what all I wrote in the essay, but yes I can share a brief where I can tell on what lines I tried to write my essay.

I wrote essays – 1. Education without values makes us a clever Devil and 2. Dreams that should not let India Sleep (writing topic in brief)

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