Essay on national policy on education in India
Education is a continuous process which aims to prepare a person to play his role as an enlightened member of the society. In other words, it means all round development of personality of a person. The system of education introduced by the British Government in India was not suitable to needs of free, independent and developing India. Since our independence, India is trying to restructure its education policy to suit the needs of technological and industrial developments. Several Commissions under the chairmanship of well known educationists have been setup in the past. The last commission on Education was set up under the chairmanship of Dr. D. S. Kothari in 1964. On the basis of its recommendation National Policy on Education was last declared in 1968. Since the adoption of 1968 policy, there has been considerable expansion of education in the country at all levels. Many of the formulation of 1968 policy, however, could not be implemented mainly due to lack of financial and administrative support. The political and socio-economic changes since then and growth of population made the government to think and announce a new education policy. In January 1985, immediately after the new government of Rajiv Gandhi came to power, it was announced that the Government would publish a document on education which would form the base for new education policy for the country. Accordingly “Challenge of Education—a policy perspective” was published by the Ministry of Education in August, 1985. After studying the views and suggestions received form various quarters, a new education policy was formulated in 1986 and it is known as ‘National Policy on Education’.
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The concept of a National System of Education implies that, up to a given level all students, irrespective of caste, creed, sex have access to education of a comparable quality. The common educational structure of 10+2+3 has been accepted. The system will be based on a national circular framework, which contains a common core along with other component that are flexible. Common core shall be designed to promote democracy, socialism, equality of sexes, protection of environment, removal of social barriers, observance for small fairly norms and international co-operation and peaceful coexistence. Minimum levels of learning will be laid down for each stage of education. In the case of higher and technical education steps will be taken to facilitate interregional mobility by providing equal access to every Indian of requisite merit regardless of his place of birth.
The new policy will lay special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs, of those who have been denied equality so far. In order to neutralize the accumulated distortion of the past, there will be a well-conceived edge in favor of women education which will be used as an agent of basic change in their status. Special measures are contemplated for education of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, minorities and the handicapped. Voluntary efforts for the education of the disabled will be encouraged. A vast programme of adult and continuing education is proposed to be implemented.
The new thrust in elementary education will emphasize two aspects : (i) universal enrollment and universal retention of children upto 14 years of age and (ii) a substantial improvement in the quality of education, provision will be made for essential facilities in primary schools. A large and systematic programme of non-formal education will be launched for school drop-outs, for children from villages and localities without schools, working boys and girls who cannot attend whole-day schools.
Secondary education begins to expose students to the differentiated role of science, humanities and social sciences. Conscious raising and a bent of healthy mind and imbibing human and cultural values will be brought about through appropriately formulated curricula. The children with special talent or aptitude will be provided opportunities to proceed at a faster pace. Pace-setting schools (called Navodya Vidhyalayas distinct from the Kandriya Vidhyalayas) will be established in various parts of the country on a given pattern with full scope for innovation and experimentation. These school are to become ‘catalysts of a nationwide programme of school improvement.
Vocational education will be a distinct stream. It would prepare students for identified occupations covering several areas of activity. These courses would normally be provided after the secondary stage, but keeping the scheme flexible, they may be made available after class VII also. It is proposed that vocational courses cover 10% of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25% by 1995.
In regard to higher education, stress has been laid on improvement of existing universities and institutions. According to Policy paper the main emphasis will be on the consolidation and expansion of facilities in these institutions. The courses and programmes are proposed to be redesigned to meet the demands of specialization. Open university system will be further extended. Degrees are to be de-linked from jobs in selected areas.
Under the new policy system of planning and management of education is proposed to be overhauled on a high priority basis. For these purpose long term planning and management perspective of education is to be evolved. Educational institutions to be given autonomy and non-governmental agencies and voluntary effort is to be associated. Principle of accountability in relation to given objectives and norms shall be established. At the national level Cultural Advisory Board of Education will play a pivotal role in reviewing educational development. It is also proposed to establish an All India Education Service.
The implementation of New Education Policy will require huge sums of money. It is proposed that resources will be raised through donations, asking the beneficiary communities to maintain school building, supplies of some consumables, raising fees at the higher level of education and effecting some savings by the efficient use of facilities. Actual requirements will be worked out from time-to-time by close monitoring and review.
The proposed education policy and its implementation is to be reviewed every five years. Appraisals at short intervals are also required to be made to ascertain the progress of implementation and the trends emerging from time-to-time. The main task is to strengthen the base of the pyramid, which might touch a bill ion people at the turn of the century. Equally, it is important to ensure that those at the top of the pyramid are among the best in the world. The present policy is intended to intensify the nation wide effort in Human Resource Development.
Essay on Education: Short Essay on Education
Essay on Education: Short Essay on Education!
Education is an effort of the senior people to transfer their knowledge to the younger members of society. It is thus an institution, which plays a vital role in integrating an individual with his society and in maintaining the perpetuation of culture. Emile Durkheim defines education as “the influence exercised by the adult generation upon those who are not yet ready for adult life”.
He further maintains that “society can survive only if there exists among its members a sufficient degree of homogeneity. The homogeneity is perpetuated and reinforced by education. A child through education learns basic rules, regulations, norms and values of society”.
Education thus is an essential prerequisite of modernization. It enables people to know the world beyond their own surroundings and transforms them to become rationalist and humanist in outlook and world view. However, it has to be kept in mind that the education has got modernized and in turn is contributing to the process of modernization of the Indian society.
The traditional education system of India was quite different from the contemporary one. In traditional Indian society, the number of educational institutions was too small and the content of education was esoteric and essentially related with religion, philosophy, metaphysics and scriptural subjects.
The education was confined to the ‘twice-born’ castes and the upper classes. The organizational structure was ascriptive and hereditary. The lower castes, particularly the scheduled castes, were denied education. Even today, the Madrassah education among Muslims is largely based on religion, philosophy and scriptural messages. Shishu Mandirs also have religion and tradition as parts of curriculum.
Modern education is exoteric, open and liberal. The world-view is scientific-rational; the theme consists of freedom, equality, humanism and denial of faith in dogma and superstitions. The course contents are rationalistic and in tune with the needs of the present-day society.
Science and technology, grammar and literature, social philosophy, history and culture, geography and ecology, agriculture and horticulture comprise the vast range of subjects which are taught in schools, colleges and universities.
The modern education lays emphasis on the subjects like freedom, nationality, law, human rights, democracy and scientific world view. The other parts of education are the co-curricular and extra-curricular activities, which are often organized for total personality development of a student.
The modern education is change-oriented and, therefore, courses are modified time and again corresponding to the changes taking place in society at large so as to keep pace with the needs of the changing situations in the wake of fast-changing industrial society.
The present industrial society has opened up a multiplicity of occupations and professions and each one of them is associated with scientific knowledge and skills. It is a society of complex division of labour and requires people with specialized knowledge.
The modern education fulfills needs of the industrial economy. A vast range of subjects like medicine, health, engineering, management and law have become hot areas of professionalization and specialization today.
1223 Words Essay on Education System in India
Education is fundamental to human progress. It plays a prominent role in all-around development of individual as well as society. A large number of books have been written on the importance of education. Education plays a key role in creating patriotic, disciplined and productive manpower.
Educated manpower constitutes precious assets as well as agents for advancing the nation. Education means the fostering of personality through the unhampered development of innate qualities of a human being. It aims at integrated development of personality.
In principle, education to the citizen is the responsibility of the State since India is a welfare State. It is an integral part of the social sector of the economy. It adds to the efficiency and productivity of human resources leading to sustainable economic growth. Its direct and indirect effects can be observed on the performance of economic sector and social sector of the country. The role of State is important in education sector for its vertical and horizontal growth.
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Education system in India is similar to that of various other South Asian countries. It consists of three major components — general education, vocational and technical, which till liberalisation of economy were public domain, i. e. they were State’s responsibility class grading divided education system from Primary level to Master level into 17 years. Institutional set-up such as university is called the basic infrastructure which is determinant of educational development.
Since the liberalisation of economy, the education sector has been opened up for the private sector and for the joint venture investment. Before 1990 when education sector was State-led which was thought good but the limited resources’ allocation to education had limited its growth projects.
This contributed to the emergence of the free educational market keeping the consumers at the centre with choices of quality, quantity and other parameters. However, pattern of annual examination is said to be critically controversial for effective measurement of performance, quality and standard. Comparatively, semester examination is better in this regard and it is gradually becoming popular.
It is next to impossible to judge the efficiency of a student in a subject within the stipulated time of three hours. It is a highly debatable issue and much has been said on this system. Besides, the sincerity or otherwise of our teachers cannot be guaged by any yardstick. This is clear from the growth of coaching institutions and the increasing number of students joining them or rising trend of private tuitions.
Again, the greatest irony is that the best teachers are supposed to be employed in government schools, while people send their wards to the private schools. A sense of accountability is completely lacking on the part of the teachers. The worst victims of the whole system are the unfortunate students who are caught in a situation of complete chaos and confusion.
One of the major drawbacks of our present system of education in India is that it gives our students the impression that their aim in life is to pass the university examinations, instead of becoming a man of good character and sound temperament. This mentality has many socio-economic evils rooted in it. Naturally, the products of such education system do not contribute to the development of the country, but add to its woes.
The greatest drawback of present education system lies in the fact that there is a wide gap between education and its marketability. Our education system does not groom young men and women in a way that they can meet the requirement of job market. Every educated person wants to be a quill-driven, and only a few lucky ones are able to secure jobs in government or Private offices.
A majority of these young educated persons have to struggle hard to fulfil their basic requirement which, obviously, brings in them a deep sense of frustration and confusion. Sometimes these frustrated youth come into the contact of anti-social elements leading them to involve in anti — national, disruptive and destructive activities.
Our secondary educational system is equally plagued with problems which have negative bearing on the education system. It merely acts as preparation ground for university education. Besides, lack of uniformity in examination evaluation system, variation in syllabus and pattern of education, the syllabus itself is unwieldy and often redundant, not in accordance with the changing socio-economic scenario.
Of course, our education system is not indigenous. It was in fact drawn by the British who actually wanted to exploit the intellectual resources of the intelligent people for their own benefits. In other words, they were merely interested in producing a class of officers who may efficiently carry on their plans and programmes and implement them with sincerity. The Britishers, however, succeeded in their mission.
This class later becomes an integral part of their administrative set-up and very loyal to the foreign forces. This privileged class had nothing in common with vast majority of illiterate people who were looked down upon by them. In course of time, they lost charm and utility, when the country was faced with unemployment problem. But it is really an irony that the country after gaining independence did not realise the need to bring about changes in the education system in conformity with the needs of a new society which got independence after centuries of slavery. Unfortunately, it has not been changed even today.
The remedial measures which are required to be taken should be started from primary level. It should be more creative and interesting, giving more emphasis to oral and practical learning. Syllabus should be fashioned in this way that it looks enjoyable and not gruesome burden. Children’s national curiosity should be aroused and it should be satisfied logically and rationally so that it may encourage their sense of learning. At the secondary level a pattern of common entrance test should be introduced in which merit should constitute main consideration and everyone should be given equal opportunity.
Though this system has been started in some States, the need is to make it uniform throughout the country. This could reduce the anxiety about the unevenness of marks offered by different high-level schools. Besides, uniformity should also be followed in the examination evaluation system and in syllabus as well. An independent autonomous body should be formed to guide, monitor and supervise all these things. Furthermore, there should be a proper performance appraisal system for the faculty members. Accountability should be laid down on the teachers in case of poor performance.
The system of private tuition should be banned completely, because the teachers having secured increased pay packets from an obliging government do not take interest in performing their duties with full sincerity and devotion.
In addition, commercialisation of education should be stopped. The evil practice of charging capitation fee is an open manifestation of this in which the highest payer is assured a place in educational institution of high repute, paying little attention to merit.
Resource constraints constitute a major problem of an education system. Investment in education is a core factor of educational development. Of course, the growth of education investment leads to good performance of education. Hence, education investment should be given top priority. No doubt, a good, sound, realistic education system with a scientific base can eliminate want, hunger, diseases and other ills of society. Education can be sensed as an instrument of enlightened social service and solid cultural attainments.