Essay on islam in hindi language

Essay on the Impact of Islam on Indian Society (1548 Words)

Here is your essay on the Impact of Islam on Indian Society!

Prior to advent of the Islam and after the reign of Harsha, India witnessed a spell of political disintegration and intellectual stagnation. The country was divided into several small states. People developed parochial outlooks and identities.

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Formalism and authoritanism dominated religions and cultural life. No innovative religions writings, ideas or commentaries were contributed by the intellectuals. The Shakas, Hunas and Gurjars put an end to the golden age of the Gupta dynasty.

However, these foreigners gradually adopted Hindu religion and culture. These invaders called themselves descendants of the Kshatriyas. This was the beginning of Rajput culture, art, literature, poetry and drama. Malwa, Kanauji, Bengali, Kashmir, Ajmer, Gwalior, Chittor, Ranthambor and Mandu were the places not only of Rajput chivalry but also of new culture, architecture and literature. South India remained stable during this period and therefore, did not experience political disintegration like the North. The Cholas ruled the whole of Peninsular India.

The historian Tarachand, in his book, the Influence of Islam on Indian Culture, observes that social and cultural revivalism in the South was due to the impact of Islamic culture. Muslim Arabs had trade relations with South India for many centuries before the emergence of Islam in India.

Indo-Iranian maritime trade had reached its peak some of these foreign traders had even settled in Srilanka and on the cost of Malabar. Some Arab Muslims also went to Sind and Gujarat, but their impact was limited. However, from the 12th century A. D., one observes a definite impact of Islamic culture on Indian Society.

Hindu and Muslim represent two different cultures, world views and way of life. Islamic and Hindu traditions have interacted, synthesised and also remained insulated. Y Singh mentions three major stages of Islamic traditions in India. These are (1) the duration of Islamic rule in India (2) during the British domination and (3) during the Indian freedom movement upto India’s independence and the country’s partition.

The first stage is marked by conflict, tension, adaptation and cultural syncretism between the Hindu and Islamic tradition. The Muslim rulers carried out religious warfare (Jihad) with the help of Ulemas.

No doubt Muslims assimilated many Hindu practices. On the other hand Indian society and culture was influenced by Islamic tradition to a very large extent. The impact of Islam on Indian culture was both negative and positive H. V. Srinivas Murthy and S. V. Kamath have highlighted both negative and positive aspects of the impact of Islam on Indian society.

They write, “Islam was indirectly responsible for making Hindu society caste-ridden and exclusive. The Hind woman was veiled and Sati was made more strict. Child marriage became more popular.”

Negative Impact:

The Muslim occupation of India accelerated certain undesirable tendencies that had already manifested themselves in the Hindu society on — the eve of the Muslim conquest. As pointed out by K. M. Panikkar Indian society was divided on a vertical basis due to introduction of Islam and Muslim rule. Before thirteenth century, Hindu society was divided horizontally. Neither Buddhism nor Jainism could affect this division but both were easily assimilated. On the contrary, Islam split Indian society into two distinct divisions from top to bottom – Hindus and Muslims.

In due course, these two sections evolved as two separate nations in the same country. Two parallel societies were vertically established on the same soil. The proselyting zeal of Islam strengthened bonds of conservatism in the orthodox circles of their outlook and practice than what they were in past.

To fortify their position against the propagation and spread of Islam, the Hindus introduced of many social taboos and caste rules were made rigid. Under the impact of Islam continuous progress disappeared from the life of Hindus.

1. The Purda System:

Islam and Muslim rule seriously affected the position of Indian women. The birth of a girl was looked upon as an inauspicious event. Consequently, female infanticide spread widely among the Hindu. This was also adopted by the Hindus in order to avoid the risk of losing their chastity by the Muslims.

The Purda System, the seclusion of women from men, unknown in early days of Hindu rule, was introduced in the Hindu society. Women generally lived in seclusion in sphere of their homes.

2. Child Marriages and Sati System:

Child marriage was introduced in society. Gradually, child marriage was enforced. Early marriage of the Hindu girls to avoid their knapping by the Muslims became the custom. System of Sati was another social evilof this period. During Muslim rule the inhuman practice of Sat, was started. Women were expected to observe strict fidelity in their conjugal life.

The condition of the Hindu women deteriorated considerably. Dependence of women on their male relatives or husbands became the prominent feature of the Hindu society.

An unhealthy feature of social life that crept into Hindu society due to Muslims was slavery. Slavery was common in the Muslim tradition. It was a practice among the Sultans. Amirs and nobles to keep both men and women slaves. This influenced the Hindu chiefs to keep slaves. Hence, slavery appeared, in India due to Muslims.

4. More Rigid Caste System:

The missionary zeal of Islam which aimed at converting the Hindus to Muslims compelled the Hindus to be orthodox in outlook and practice to protect their religion and culture from the onslaught of Islam.

Hence attempts were made to make caste rules more rigorous and daily rules of conduct more rigid. Restrictions regarding caste and marriage had become more stringent among the Hindus. New rules with regard to caste and marriage were also prescribed.

5. Conversions:

When Hindu society became more rigid and conservative, the miseries of lower castes increased to a large extent. Due to this reason lower caste Hindus particularly the untouchables converted to Islam.

Positive Impact:

The negative aspects of the impact of Islam on Indian society discussed as under:

1 Religious Impact:

Islam brought to India a conception of human equality, pride in one’s religion, a legal system which was in many ways an advance on the codes of the time Hindu rulers were influenced to work as the upholders of Hindu religion. Islam gave the message of universal brotherhood, introduced equality in society, rejected caste system and untouchability.

In due course, these ideas began to have a conscious or unconscious effect upon the philosophical Hindu mind and fostered the growth of liberal movements under religious reformers.

The presence of am paved the way for the growth of the Bhakti cult. The saints and reformers of fifteenth and sixteenth centuries like Kabira, Nanak and Srichaitanya preached fundamental equality of all religions. However, medieval Bhakti cult was in some ways a reply to the attack of Islam on Hinduism.

2. Impacts on Upper Class Hindu:

Rich Hindu classes were influenced by the Mohammedan dress, etiquette, recreation and other activities. The art of warfare was also influenced and developed as result of Islamic contact. Food of Muslims like Biryani, Kabab and Palan etc. were adopted by the Hindus.

Indian music and musical instruments were also influenced by Islam. Indian musical instruments were modified and new instruments were produced The Tab la was produced by modification of Hindu musical instrument, Mridanga. Indian Veena was combined with Iranian Tambura and Sitatar was produced.

A fusion of Hindu and Iranian systems of music led to the evolution of light songs like quwwalis. Different classical vocal music of India underwent radical changes as a result of the contact with Muslim singers.

4. Architecture:

Assimilation and synthesis between Hindu and Islamic culture led to evolution of new styles of architecture. According to Dr. Tarachand, “The craftsmanship, ornamental richness and general design remained largely Hindu, the arcaded form, plain doms, smooth-faced walls and spacious interiors were Muslim impositions.”In the field of architecture new styles started of which Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Qutab Minar, Taj Mahal etc. are the living examples.

5. Art and Craft:

New art and crafts were introduced in the country; for example, paper-making, enamellings, metals and jewels etc. Many workshops were setup-for gold and silver articles and embroidery. The Mughal rulers, except Aurangzeb, patronised architecture, fine art and paintings. Under Jahangir painting received considerable fillip.

6. Language and Literature:

Hindu-Muslim contact led to linguistic synthesis. Urdu is the outcome of a mixture of Persian, Arabic and Turkish words and of ideas with the concepts and languages of Sanskrit origin. The Urdu became language of the people. The Hindi language was also influenced by Muslim contact. This is distinct in vocabulary, grammar, similes and styles. Literature in India was influenced by the Turko-Afghans to a large extent. Books like Hassan Nizami’s Taj-ul-Moa’ Sir, Qazi Minhaz-us-Siraj’s Tabakat-i-Nasiri etc. influenced the Hindus. Many good works were composed and written in Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati and Marathi etc. Many Arabized Persian language words found their way into the local languages.

Long association brought the two distinct groups of the Hindus and Muslims closer and closer with the result that the evolution of the Hindu culture was coloured with the Islamic thing. But the Hindu culture in its own turn influenced the Islamic elements. It is a fact that the Hindus and the Muslims have contributed to the evolution of common cultural heritage in India.

Short Essay on “Islam” (618 Words)

Islam is the last revealed religion. ’Islam’ is an Arabic word meaning ‘peace’ and ‘submission’. In its religious sense, it connotes submission to the will of God; in its secular sense, it signifies the establishment of peace. Muhammad identified himself as a simple human being, sent by God as His Prophet to the people.

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The Quran is the Divine Book which is God’s own word as revealed to Muhammad through the Angel of Revelation. It dictates the Law, initiates into the Unseen, purifies the soul and guides social progress. It can be said to be a complete code of conduct for all times.

The Quran, to-day, is a record of what the Prophet said while in a state of ecstatic seizure. The recording of the Prophet’s words in the beginning was haphazard. Verses were written on palm leaves, stones, the shoulder — blades of animals in short, any material which was readily available.

There is no doubt that, at the death of Muhammad, a good deal of the Quran was already written down, though not all of it, for while the Prophet was alive, new Suras or chapters, were constantly being added. There is also no doubt that a great deal of the Quran had been learnt by heart.

Tradition associates the collection of all this material to Abu Bakr, the first Caliph. The first authorised version was published in the times of Caliph Usman.

At the time of the Prophet, and just before he preached the new faith, there were several kinds of religious beliefs in Arabia. Paganism or heathenism of a crude and inartistic type without any ritual, pomp, mythology or philosophical speculation was rampant.

Then, there were colonies of Christians in parts of Arabia. Jewish and Zoroastrian communities were also to be found. In most cases, the outward form of each faith was preserved, but people had forgotten the true principles of their religion.

People had lost contact with spirituality. It was around this time that there arose a group of men called ‘hanifs’ who devoted themselves to religious meditation. These hanifs were monotheistic in their attitude.

It was at such a time that the Prophet preached his message. His faith had appeal because it had a socialistic and democratic flavour. It divided the estate of a person after his death in a fair manner, and compulsorily distributed it among his nearest relations, male and female.

It enjoined the giving of ‘zakat’ almost two-and-a-half per cent of one’s capital as alms every year. It preached equality among human beings and the brotherhood of man. In Islam, laws are intermixed with religion. It would, therefore, be relevent first to understand and appreciate the true spirit of Islam.

First of all, the Prophet himself never claimed that Islam was a new religion. He asserted that it was as old as the hills. In Quranic theory, Islam is a religion which has existed since the beginning of the world, and will exist till the day of Resurrection. Muhammad claimed that he was merely a man, a human being, like the other prophets, and was liable to err in human affairs, but was divinely guided and inspired in matters of religion.

Secondly, there is the principle of Tawhid or the unity of God. Islam is essentially monotheistic in direct contrast to the paganism of the times.

The third principle is that of brotherhood of man. Pride of colour or race was absolutely condemned by the Prophet. In his last sermon, the Prophet is reported to have said: The Arab is not superior to the non-Arab; the non-Arab is not superior to the Arab. You are all sons of Adam, and Adam was made of earth. Verily all Muslims are brothers…”

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