Essays on gun control in america

Gun Control Essay Sample

Against Gun Control Essay

The problem of gun control is hotly debated nowadays. 50% of the population are for it explaining that having a gun provides them some protection. Because of various reasons our justice system cannot always protect us which is why the majority of people is looking for some other ways of staying safe. However, a gun is still a weapon. Despite the fact that most people want to possess it in order to be on the safe side, we are aware of a lot of accidents when innocent people were hurt unintentionally. For this reason, more and more people nowadays are supporting the complication of the procedure of getting a gun. Too many factors indicate its negative aspects. Of course, some of you might say that it is not the gun that kills people; it is people itself. You are absolutely right but the fact that those people have the gun is what leads them to such dreadful actions. We should take measures in order to reduce the amount of guns people possess, otherwise it may lead to a great number of tragedies. Rage, jealousy and anger are strong motifs and before you know it, somebody has already hurt the other person.

The government should be very careful deciding whether this person should or should not be allowed to carry a gun. Our reality is harsh and what seemed to be a measure of protection may turn into brutality.

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Essay on Gun Control

There have been arguments regarding the gun control in the United States where some people have been on the idea that laws on gun control should be enhanced while others supported the idea that they should be scrapped and there should no be rules governing gun control in the country. The importance on gun control rules was emphasized due to the increase in insecurity whose main attribute is gun violence raised by the people who are in possession of the guns. The second amendment allows citizens to have the right to bear arms and can use them for self defense. Therefore, when there are fights against people possessing firearms, it is an indication that people are trying to defeat the point that gave birth to the second amendment. There has also been an argument that violence will also be experienced in the absence of the guns. There are other weapons that can be used to perpetrate violence, and other factors should be considered in controlling violence apart from confiscating guns and bringing other laws that control gun possession. For instance, there was reported a case where a young man stabbed his fellow student with a screwdriver in a high school. He did not need a gun to commit the murder, yet there was crime in the school. People are also denied freedom of some activities such as hunting. For many people, hunting is a hobby, and a gun is used in hunting the wild animals. When there are gun control laws, it is very obvious that they are deprived of their interest in their hobby. For these reasons, there should no be gun control laws, as people should be allowed to use the guns at their discretion (Dixon, 2013).

Most Americans cling to the second amendment that allows citizens to hold firearms wherever they go for their own safety. Most people also believe that the second amendment was placed so that the citizens would be protected from the tyrannical government that seemed to keep people in fear. People would have the power to rebel in case the government introduced dictatorial policies for their people. However, though this was not the main aim why people were issued with guns, it served as a purpose as the power of the government would be regulated in a way that the people would be given a chance to make their own ideas and also be given a voice in the government. This is because of the power they were believed to have after they were given the go — ahead to possess the firearms.

The second amendment states that the right of people to keep their arms should not be infringed by any means. The amendment mentions a well — regulated militia which is a phrase that means a group of citizens that act in position of an army. It continues to describe that it is necessary to the security of a free state. In this phrase, it means that the group will be in the frontline in making sure that it meets the goals and the interests of the citizen army. The main objective of the citizen army is to protect the best interests of the country, as well as, protecting the government also from foreign intervention. In the last bit of the amendment, the citizen army is required to bear and keep their arms for America’s security. This means that when the gun control laws are being introduced, the main intention of introducing the second amendment is being assumed. This means that the country would be left at the stake of only the military and the citizens would not have the power of protecting their government, as well as, the best interests of their nation (Lott 18-25).

Another main reason why the second amendment was made was that the South would be able to control the slaves. Guns would be essential in helping carry out slavery in the South at ease. Therefore, state militias served as slave patrols where they had to be given the mandate and responsibility to hold guns so that they would be able to control the slaves. The second amendment was also made because of the rebellions that used to take place in the country. For example, the whiskey rebellion caused the government to revoke the amendment as a way of controlling the militias in helping stop the rebellion. The farmers were rebelling against the government for imposing a new tax, yet it had not been there previously. When the amendment was made, room for rebel had not been created against the government. However, such rebellions were experienced when the government was not in a position to meet certain needs of the people or it acted in such a way that people viewed as selfish or had corrupt intentions. For this reason, the state has been enjoying its democratic right because rebellions and demonstrations are respected because the government realizes the power within the people. If such power had not been vested in the people, it would be difficult in the United States to stage rebellions and demonstrations in fight for human rights and freedom. Imposing gun control laws in the country is, therefore, a way of curtailing freedom in the United States, as the people may lack the voice and the authority they had previously (Bijlefeld 78-92).

There has also been an argument that it is not the guns that kill people, but it is the people themselves who kill other people. In this context, those against the gun controls argue that it is a personal initiative for a criminal to engage in crime, whether he holds a gun or not. In this regard, he does not have to possess gun for him to hold a gun. More comparisons are made between other weapons that are used to kill people and the guns that are always blamed for being used in killing people. People use crude weapons including screwdrivers, knives, swords or any metallic objects if they have the intention to kill other people. The gun just necessitates and quickens the process, and they argue that the killing would still have taken place, in the absence of the gun. Therefore, before placing the gun control laws as a measure to reduce violence and crime, more research should be indulged and there should be other actions that ought to be taken as a way of reducing the violence. For example, most people who commit these crimes are usually in the influence of high drug intoxication. It is these drugs that will make them use the guns or other weapons around them in committing violence.

The best way to help reduce violence in such a person would not be confiscating the gun he is carrying, but rehabilitating him as a way to reduce the drug use in him. This is because even after taking the gun, the drug effects may show him to use other weapons to commit the crime. However, when he has been led out of using the drugs, he will not use the gun wrongly, and will continue keeping and bearing it for the right purpose, which is self — defense and protecting the interests of the nation, as outlined in the constitution (Dixon, 2013).

Ideally, the legislations that have been created for gun control are meant for the criminals. It goes without saying that criminals do not follow the law, and making such legislation does not stop them from committing their crimes. Criminals are very conversant with the laws and they intentionally break them so that they get what they want. The new laws that have been created for gun control are, therefore, going to affect the citizens who are not criminals and are held illegible to carry the guns. This would be unfair to them because the criminals will always have their own ways to hide and use the guns even when the new laws are being put into practice. With this in mind, the rate of crime and violence is likely to shoot up since it is in the knowledge of the criminals that people are not holding guns, and they can, therefore, use their guns more freely than they would have used them when people are holding guns (Spitzer 102-116).

It has also been concluded that gun laws do not work in any way. This is in reference of earlier legislations that had been placed in hopes that they would be able to regulate gun violence. For instance, there was a law that existed between 1994 and 2004. The law required that no one was allowed to carry guns, but it did not work as gun violence did not reduce, as expected. This shows that there is little or no correlation between gun violence and the enactment of the ban on firearm holding in the U. S. there are other more factors that should be considered if the country is committed in stopping gun violence. The legislation itself had loopholes, which the criminals used in keeping and using the guns wrongly. Other factors that may have a higher degree of correlation with gun violence are factors such as having mental illness and using drugs wrongly. When the government concentrates on confiscating guns on a measure to reduce gun violence, it will lose the track and violence will still be on the rise. It should focus on other solutions, and gun control should come last when other measures are working.

Therefore, it has been clearly indicated why it is important in letting people hold guns and why gun legislation should not be enacted. More safety and security of the state will be ensured when the government embarks on other measure to help stop gun violence in the U. S. Researchers have already found out that there is negative correlation between gun legislation and gun violence. However, when the government embarks on research of how to stop gun violence through other measures such as rehabilitating people with mental illnesses and drug addicts, a permanent solution is being found for people in the nation, and gun violence will reduce since there is a substantial positive correlation between gun violence and drug abuse and mental illnesses.

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Essay: Guns in America

Today in America, gun control is a very serious issue. There are different opinions on this issue, the National Rifle Association (NRA), feels that guns are safe when used for protection by responsible citizens, others feel that guns are far too dangerous to be kept in homes, and that guns should not be owned by anyone, only used by the National Guard and law enforcement. These people think their opinions are correct according to the second amendment, the amendment that deals with the bearing of arms by citizens of America, but there have been different interpretations of it. The reason that people feel gun ownership is such a problem is that so many people lose their lives by them each year. Personally, I feel that guns lead to increases in crime, murder, and household accidents. By reducing availability of guns and providing education on gun safety, I think that these things will help make America safer. Before making up my mind on what I felt about the issue, I made sure to consider the opinions of others and to collect statistics.

People from the (NRA), who are against gun control, feel that the people are responsible for the negative effects guns have on America. Helen Smith, a forensic psychologist who shares the ideas of the NRA, wrote an article titled “It’s Not The Guns”. In this article, she talks about the increase in school and youth violence, relating to guns. She blames the children and irresponsible parents. She denies that guns are easier for kids to get today which is understandable because many people keep their guns locked up. Dr. Gary Kleck, a criminologist at Florida State University, defends guns in gun related accidents. He conducted a survey, which showed that there are fewer gun related accidents than there are automobile accidents, falls, drowning, pedestrian, fire, poisoning, and suffocation. As a result of his survey, he said “Subsequently politicians demand mandatory safety classes for all gun owners, yet many more lives could be saved by randomly selecting and educating a group of drivers rather than gun owners, not to mention the populace at large regarding, administering first-aid, how to eat, and basic common sense safety habits.”

Although these people do have good points, I cannot say that I agree with everything they state. For one thing, it is true that the people are responsible for how they use guns but not true to say that guns are not part of the problem. You cannot just get rid of people who are incapable of knowing how to treat guns correctly, but you can take away guns, so that these problems and accidents will not occur at all. In response to Dr. Kleck’s survey, I would like to say that although firearms may not be the largest cause of accidents per year, but they do cause too many needless deaths, so something should be done about them. Nine hundred deaths a year may not seem like a lot of deaths to some people, but I assume it would if their child or someone they knew were one of those people. That is what everyone needs to consider. Regarding the fact that Dr. Kleck thinks that more lives would be saved by giving random drivers safety lessons and teach the average citizen common sense, I’d have to say that common sense does not have much to do with the accidents on his survey. I am sure he has tripped and fallen or choked on his food before at least once. I have, does that mean I lack common sense? I also disagree with some of the points Helen Smith made in her article. I do think she is right that the children who would use guns on fellow students have mental issues that separate them from the average child. But, again saying that guns are not part of that problem is something I would beg to differ. If the Columbine students did not have access to assault weapons such as a Tech 9 and a shotgun, I doubt the outcome would have been the same. Because these two students had these guns, several other students were killed for no reason. Knowing this, how can someone say, “It’s not the guns”? Hearing the opinions of people that differ from mine bring many different questions to mind, such as why do we need guns in the first place other than in the National Guard and law enforcement? The answer is to protect ourselves, but from what? Well, other people who have guns. It’s a chain reaction. Someone sees other people buying guns and decides that they also need one because so many others have them. This being the case, I can see people buying handguns to keep their families safe from a dangerous neighborhood. I can also see people buying hunting rifles for hunting purposes obviously, but I wonder, why assault weapons? Do some people buy these high-powered shotguns and machine guns with seemingly endless clips to hunt? I doubt it. These guns were designed specifically to kill. Why are these weapons sold to the average law abiding citizen? This is the thing that bothers me the most. We now have a standing army, unlike when there were only state militias. The second amendment was written to allow these militiamen to own weapons. The second amendment is now interpreted different ways, which creates a great deal of controversy.

The second amendment states “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to bear arms, shall not be infringed.” People have taken this to mean that in addition to having a militia, citizens of America have the Constitutional right to bear arms. Others think that seeing how we now have a standing army, not a militia, there is no need for average citizens to bear arms, so it is no longer their Constitutional right. There have even been Supreme Court cases to determine what the amendment means. The U. S. v. Cruikshank case of 1876, the first case involving the second amendment, decided that the right for Americans to bear arms was not protected by the second amendment, but it was not denied by the amendment either. The Supreme Court upheld the decision of the U. S. v. Cruikshank case in other cases that were brought to it.

Even if people have the right to bear arms, whether it is constitutional or not, statistics should turn people away from owning a gun. The Chicago Police Department Murder Analysis shows an increase in murder rates every year by firearms. In 1998, 65% of murders were by firearms, 52% of those by handguns. 25% of the murderers did not have a criminal record, which shows that new gun owners are using guns for more than just protection. In 1995, there were 13,790 firearm homicides. I’m not sure what these numbers mean to others, but to me they seem very large. I’m sure that almost all of these people who were victims of guns, should not have lost their lives.

My goal in this essay is to allow everyone to see and understand why gun control is necessary to lower the rates of crime, murder, and household accidents, which are much too high. People are losing their lives by firearms everyday, and I feel that is time for that to stop. In this essay, you have the opportunity to see both sides of the argument and choose who you agree with or form your own opinion. Hopefully, by providing you with statistics and background information as well as opinion, you were able to understand why I feel the way I do about this topic and understand why it is so important to control the spread of guns throughout America.

Gun Control Essay

Today, gun control has become one of those topics that everybody talks about. And there is no surprise in that, considering the tragic events that took place recently. The discussion around gun control has been lasting for as long as this country exists, but it has become an even more pressing issue after those mass shootings. It is being discussed everywhere – in the media, in the scientific journals on social studies, in the city councils and in the Congress. No wonder this topic also gets its share of attention in classrooms and every student has to write at least one gun control essay in the course of studies.

Truly, gun control gives the most fertile ground for debate. Some people stand on pro gun control positions and claim that the existing gun control regulations are critically insufficient. Other people argue that criminals procure guns illegally anyway, so conscious citizens should also have free access to firearms for self-defense. Between these two extremes, there is also a great variety of viewpoints and opinions.

If you want to discuss such a sensitive issue in an academic paper, you cannot afford to have an opinion based on nothing, like some people have. You have to be well-informed on the background of the issue, as well as on all the multitude of expert opinions about it. To do that, you first have to look at where it all began – the Second Amendment to the Constitution of the United States that was passed in 1791 and granted the individuals the right to possess firearms. Since then, the understanding of the Second Amendment has evolved a great deal, and we are still far from consensus on this question. The discussion continues on all levels, and a student’s gun control essay is really just as good ground to discuss it as any other.

RESEARCHING FOR YOUR GUN CONTROL ESSAY

A research on any topic suggests looking through all the information you find on this topic. With gun control, you will have no problem finding information, since there is a lot of it out there. In fact, the amount of information on this topic is quite overwhelming – much more than one can digest at a time and much more than one may need to write an excellent essay. Given these massive amounts of potential sources of information, you should make sure that you are not wasting your time looking through sources that are irrelevant to your topic, even if they may be quite an exciting read. To do that, you need to make your research well planned out and know where to look the relevant information.

As we have already pointed out, when you want to get yourself well-informed on any particular issue, you begin with investigating its roots. When we talk about gun control discussion, it all roots from the Second Amendment. It was passed along with the rest of the Bill of Rights at the very dawn of our country in the late 18 th century. There, the right for individual gun possession was first formulated and regulated. This document is the source of our entire understanding of individual gun possession, so you need to be familiar with this document if you look to talk about gun control and be taken seriously.

Much time has passed since then, and there have been many precedents where the court had to rule to clarify certain aspects of the Second Amendment – on both state and federal levels. The most noteworthy relevant court cases are as follows:

  • 1876 – United States v. Cruikshank
  • 1939 – United States v. Miller
  • 2008 – District of Columbia v. Heller
  • 2010 – McDonald v. the City of Chicago

These and some other court cases have largely contributed to today’s understanding of individual possession and gun control, so being familiar with them is also necessary for building your expertise on gun control.

Getting familiar with the historical background of the gun control discussion is only half of your research. You will also need to be aware of the present-day state of this ongoing discussion. For this, you should browse through the reputable media, like New Yorker and Times, BBC and CNN, etc. and look for gun control articles with experts opinions from both pro and anti gun control camps. To make it easier for you, we have taken the liberty and put together a selection of insightful pieces from both sides of the gun control discussion.

A SELECTION OF PRO GUN CONTROL ARTICLES

These pro gun control articles state that the current gun control regulations are not effective enough to confront gun violence and talk about how the situation can be improved:

4 Pro-Gun Arguments We’re Sick of Hearing by Amanda Marcotte, Rolling Stone

Since everybody talks about gun control today, Amanda Marcotte of the Rolling Stone magazine has also come up with this surprisingly insightful piece. She does not claim to be an expert but rather speaks from the stand of one of the people at whom pro-gun arguments are supposed to aim, and explains why they don’t work.

Battleground America by Jill LePore, The New Yorker

If you feel like you are not well-informed enough about gun control, this article is priceless for you. It briefly sums up the spirit of the Second Amendment as it was 200 years ago and follows its evolution through the years, as well as the evolution of firearms themselves.

California’s Proposed Gun Laws Won’t Change Our Culture of Violence, But They Will Make Us Safer by LA Times Editorial Board

This article is a detailed overview of the present-day gun control regulations in California, which is arguably the strictest in the land. They conclude by stating that the current regulations are not effective enough, as they involve a number of loopholes. The authors suggest that the regulations should be made even stricter.

Gun Control and the Constitution: Should We Amend the Second Amendment? by Paul M. Barrett, Bloomberg Businessweek

Barrett points out that the language in the text of the Second Amendment is quite vague and leaves too much room for interpretation. So, instead of fixing or clarifying it, he suggests that a whole newest of regulations is necessary, clear and direct.

It’s Time to Ban Guns. Yes, All of Them by Phoebe Maltz Bovy, New Republic

Bovy takes a more radical stand in this discussion. She claims that we need to get rid of individual gun possession as a whole, with no exceptions.

Why We Can’t Talk About Gun Control by James Hamblin, The Atlantic

In his time, Hamblin was fired for drafting a piece on gun control that was not approved by his superiors. In this article, he talks about how unhealthily politicized the topic is and how our society is incapable of seeing it as it is and not as an attack on our whole set of rights and freedoms.

A SELECTION OF ANTI GUN CONTROL ARTICLES

These anti gun control articles insist that the existing gun control regulations are ineffective because they are too strict and suggest that these regulations need to be loosened. Here is what the experts from this side of the argument have to say:

5 Arguments Against Gun Control — And Why They Are All Wrong by Evan DePhilippis and Devin Hughes, LA Times

DePhilippis and Hughes are convinced that the opinion that stricter gun regulations can end gun violence is wrong and that it is a myth that needs to be debunked. If you want to read more from them, feel free to check out their gun violence prevention site Armed With Reason.

A Criminologist’s Case Against Gun Control by Jacob Davidson, Time

Davidson takes a scholarly approach on the issue. He attempts to give a definition of gun control and critically scrutinize the most common gun control approaches and methods. The article also includes valuable input from James Jacobs, the director of the Center for Research in Crime and Justice at New York University School of Law.

‘American Sniper’ Widow: Gun Control Won’t Protect Us by Taya Kyle, CNN

This emotional piece is written by the widow of Chris Kyle whose tragic story was put on screen in American Sniper. If you want to know more about her take on gun control policy, you can read about it on her book American Wife: A Memoir of Love, War, Faith, and Renewal.

Gun Control Isn’t the Answer by James Q. Wilson, LA Times

As a recognized author of books on crime and a respected teacher at Pepperdine University, Wilson uses his expertise to analyze what exactly pro gun control side has to offer. He concludes that they are being too populist and have no concrete plan of action. For instance, he points out that they don’t suggest anything regarding the existing gun-owning individuals.

How Gun Control Kills by Jack Hunter, The American Conservative

Hunter works of Rand Paul, the conservative senator. The article focuses on stories where gun-owning individuals helped to confront crime and violence, as opposed to the stories where such individuals cause violence – that the pro gun control lobbyists like to manipulate.

Why Gun Owners Are Right to Fight Against Gun Control by David T. Hardy, Reason. com

Hardy is a practicing attorney from Arizona. He blames pro gun control activists for being deaf to arguments from the anti gun control camp and incapable of a constructive dialogue. According to him, they only see their position and will not rest until all individual firearm possession is banned for good.

WHAT KINDS OF GUN CONTROL ESSAYS THERE ARE

Being well-informed about the gun control debate is crucial for writing an excellent gun control essay, but it is still only half the battle. You still need to know what kind of essay you have to submit and what your teacher expects of you. Here are the kinds of gun control essays that you may have to write:

  • Argumentative gun control essay. In an argumentative essay, you convince your reader logically that your argument is correct. In this case, we talk about either anti or pro gun control argument.
  • Cause and effect essay on gun control. In a cause and effect essay, you investigate an event – real-life or hypothetic – and conclude about the results to which this event leads.
  • Compare and contrast essay on gun control. In a compare and contrast essay, you enumerate the differences and similarities between two entities. In this case, your entities under comparison may be anti and pro gun control opinions or persons with these opinions.
  • Critical gun control essay.In a critical essay, you take a critical look at something and talk about its strong and weak points. You can take a critical look at one of the sides of the gun control debate.
  • Definition gun control essay. In a definition essay, you define a notion – it is much like an article in a dictionary. You can define any gun control-related notion or gun control as a whole.
  • Descriptive gun control essay.In a descriptive essay, you are expected to describe what something feels like in terms of your senses – seeing, hearing, even smelling. You can write what it looks like when everybody has a gun or when nobody has one.
  • Expository gun control essay.In an expository essay, you simply list everything there is to know about the subject without expressing any opinion, i. e., you expose the subject. You can write about the current gun control regulations or talk about which ideas on gun control prevail today.
  • Narrative gun control essay.In a narrative essay, you tell a story about an experience – yours or someone else’s, real-life or fictional. You can tell a story about guns and what happened because of certain gun control regulations or what could have happened if they were different.
  • Persuasive gun control essay. In a persuasive essay, you set out to convince an opponent that your opinion is correct and their opinion is incorrect. You can try and convince a hypothetical anti gun control lobbyist that stricter gun control regulations are necessary.
  • Process gun control essay. In a process essay, you explain how to do something – for example, how to solve a problem. You can talk about how gun violence can be confronted by imposing stricter gun control regulations or by loosening them up.

Since gun control is an extremely debatable topic, it is most exciting to talk about which side of the debate is right. This is why, students most often have to write either argumentative or persuasive essays on gun control.

HOW TO WRITE A GUN CONTROL PERSUASIVE ESSAY

If you have to write a persuasive essay, you know what you should do first – pick a topic that can inspire a debate between at least two opposing sides. At least, in case with gun control, you don’t need to worry too much about that, because there are few more polarizing topics than this. You also need a compelling argument that you will defend. Here, you also have nothing to worry about, because both sides of the gun control debate have numerous compelling arguments.

As soon as the latter two elements are in place, it is the high time to start your research. Putting it briefly, first, you get yourself familiar with the relevant historical background of the issue, and then you collect expert opinions. Notably, you should not limit yourself to the expert opinions from your side of the debate. You should also be aware of what your opponents have to say, so you know how to rebuke their claims in advance.

As you know, a persuasive essay is the kind of essay where you have to convince a hypothetical opponent that your viewpoint on the subject is correct and theirs is not. So, this is your ultimate goal when writing such an essay and you should use all means at hand to achieve it. By all means at hand we mean each of the three methods of persuasion:

  • Ethos. Appealing to the sense of ethics through the speaker’s authority
  • Logos. Appealing to common sense through logic
  • Pathos. Appealing to feelings through emotion

Ultimately, you can use all three of these methods of persuasion in your gun control persuasive essay, but using all three is not necessary. You can even stick to just one, so long as you achieve your main goal – persuade your reader.

HOW TO WRITE AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY ON GUN CONTROL

An argumentative essay on gun control is harder to write than a persuasive one because here you can only use logic to prove your point, i. e., you are limited to logos and not allowed to use other methods of persuasion. Gun control is the kind of topic that inspires emotion, so it is hard to stick to logic and restrain from emotion. Yet, the format of a gun control argumentative essay demands just that.

This is the most noteworthy feature by which you differ a gun control argumentative essay from a persuasive one. The rest – the overall goal, the research, and the writing process – will be the same.

WRITING A GUN CONTROL RESEARCH PAPER

If you get particularly interested in the discussion around the gun control regulations, you are sure to dig up much more material than one may need for an essay. Truly, this topic is so deep and broad, and it can be investigated under so many angles and on so many levels, that you can write much bigger papers about it: from a gun control research paper to a Ph. D. dissertation. In fact, you can devote your entire career to researching gun control.

Of course, a research paper is bigger in volume than an average essay, but still, a single research paper is not nearly enough to cover all there is to cover about gun control. So, if you set out to write a gun control research paper, the first thing for you to do is to narrow down your topic to make it more specific. Keep in mind that you don’t need to overthink it. Usually, students are allowed to re-formulate their research paper topics on the go, should they come up with something more interesting and original while conducting a research. Speaking of research, you are not limited to using printed sources by other authors. In fact, chances are you will be encouraged to conduct an empirical research of your own (for example, a survey) and refer to it among other sources – which should count no less than five.

The most important feature of a research paper is that it centers on the research data – facts, statistics, and analytics – and leaves out all speculations and opinions.